Key Words

Creativity, Teaching Effectiveness, Elementary Teachers

Introduction

Creativity is a characteristic of many human beings. Although it is very hard to understand, educators and politicians view that creativity is one of the important factors in ife satisfaction, motivating learners and as a pattern of innovation and economic production. If creativity is promoted in educatina process it can prespire student to become better person and realize their dreams. Inventiveness learning is emphasize and contibutory to the present days often highlighted as a skill essential for success in the 21st century.

Daniel Pink [11] noted that being creative is increasingly starting to achieve goals in the complexities and interconnectedness of the world and researchers in education researchers and psychologists bank on the the social, emotional, cognitive, and professional benefits of possessing creative abilities [15].

Mishra, Koehler, and Henriksen, [9] cited that they integrated in their classrooms, they integrated and explored the part of education in emphasizing creativity na inventiveness among students.

Mishra and Henriksen [8] explained that above spreading techniques and seeking to truly place create ways in other disciplines and answer a basic problem about inventiveness that even as it’s fowarded in the full knowledge of the field; it needs going out of these. Moreover, invenyive ones have the capability to remain being knowledgeable of their specialization yet get out of that field to develop new ideas.

Davidovitch and Milgram [3] suggested that “effective” pedagogy is similar to creative instruction.

The 21st century was a time of great technological growth; the skills needed to succeed are different than those needed in previous centuries, in today’s student needs a specific set of skills, including creativity, to be successful in the future career market [4].

According to Robinson [13], divergent thinking was not a synonym for creativity; however divergent thinking is a thought process that lends itself to creative thought and this process allows people to think outside the norm and to create new solutions.

According to Newton and Newton [10], today’s world required more divergent thinking skills than have been needed in the past due to ever increasing technology, yet many educators do not alter their teaching plans to address the need to foster divergent thinking. In addition, teachers do not always define creativity in the same manner as researchers; for example, teachers often view creativity in terms of writing and art, they do not perceive it as a process of thinking and processing information.

Bolden, Harries and Newton [2] cited that divergent thinking skills can be fostered in all content areas and in various ways throughout the school day, especially during the elementary years and teachers often believe they foster creativity by allowing students to draw pictures and create projects on their own; in reality, creativity is a process that requires a great deal of attention to develop to its full potential.

According to Newton and Newton [10], creative people who make large advances toward the betterment of society such as Thomas Edison or the Wright Brothers.

Learning tends to happen best in situational contexts; memorization of rote facts provide minimal achievement in a constantly advancing world [16]. Not establishing innovative skills at the elementary level can damage a child’s creative potential and hinder their success in future endeavours [16].

According to Woolfolk [16], creative thinking involves sensitivity to problems, fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, and redefinition abilities.

Ghysels [15] suggested that while content knowledge is important in education and in life, it is not the only element required for success; people also need critical thinking and problem solving skills to reduce tension and to find success.

Lau and Cheung [7] suggested that a cultural cause, such as pressure to conform, creates this decrease. In other words, the school system may teach children to hide their creative abilities since these skills are often indirectly suppressed within or outside the classroom environment through monotonous routines and strict guidelines.

Beghetto and Kaufman [1] and Kim and VanTassel-Baska [6] suggested that creative learning methods include experimenting, questioning, testing, manipulating, and exploring and that learning creatively through these and other strategies may increase academic achievement. In addition, educational progress can be hindered when students are forced to learn by authoritarian methods, rather than using creative methods that promote choice [4].

Creative learning activities may also help educators diversify instruction and meet the needs of all students. In other words, allowing students to learn through exploration can lead to a much more meaningful educational experience [4].

Fletcher [4] found a disconnect between what teachers say they believe about creative thinking and what they do to promote creative thinking. In other words, teachers could be discouraging creativity because they find creative characteristics in children to be distracting and/or hard to manage.

Prabhu et al. (2008) found support for the negative influence of extrinsic motivation on creativity, based on self-reporting inventories of 124 college students, researchers found that self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and openness to experience were strongly and positively related to creativity, intrinsic motivation was also related to perseverance; however, perseverance did not appear to be correlated to creativity and extrinsic motivation was negatively related to creativity, as was perseverance under high levels of extrinsic motivation, but not at low or mean levels.

Effectiveness of teachers has been discussed among the focus of researchers since then with much attention given to the details that are factors of teaching effectively.

For instance, numerous scholars have argued that the most successful teachers are enthusiastic about their teaching, have a positive regard for and rapport with their students, organize their course content to meet their learners’ needs and interests and provide a comfortable atmosphere that motivates students to learn. Similarly, he offered a generalized definition of teacher effectiveness as: The collection of characteristics, competencies, and behaviors of teachers at all educational levels that enable students to reach desired outcomes, which may include the attainment

of specific learning objectives as well as broader goals such as being able to solve problems, think critically, work collaboratively, and become effective citizens.

However, teacher effectiveness research is concerned with the type of interactions that exist in a classroom rather than to how students perceive teacher interpersonal behaviour. The other three elements refer to the attempt of teachers to create a businesslike and supportive environment for learning especially since research on teacher effectiveness reveals that the classroom environment should not be only businesslike but also needs to be supportive for the students. Thus, effective teachers expect all students to be able to succeed and their positive expectations are transmitted to their students. The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to explore the relationship between creativity and teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers at the District of Lambunao West, Iloilo, Philippines

Statement of the Problem

The aim of this study is to determine the creativity and effectiveness in teaching of elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Iloilo, Philippines for the school year 2015-2016.

Furthermore, this tried to answer the following:

  • What is the level creativity among elementary teachers being practiced?
  • Are the levels of creativity among elementary teachers being practiced significantly different?
  • What is the level of teaching effectiveness among elementary teachers?
  • Is the level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers significantly different?
  • Are the relationships between the creativity and teaching effectiveness among elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Iloilo, Philippines significantly different?

Materials and Methods

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. Descriptive research, according to de Vaus (1999) is the process of attempting to answer the question what is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of conditions that exist.

According to Good, (1993) research method which is descriptive, describes and interprets what is. It treat the condition of significant that take place, the practices that are ongoing beliefs, points of view on attitudes that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing.

This method is most appropriate in determining the extent creativity and level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Philippines. The researcher also used the descriptive-correlation research design when they tried to find out the direction and extent of relationship between different variables and extent of differences between different variables (Fox, 1999).

The respondents of the study were one hundred four (104) elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Division of Iloilo, Province of Iloilo, Region VI – Western Visayas, for school year 2015-2016. Complete enumeration was used in selecting sample respondents. Before the survey was conducted, permission was secured from the Iloilo School Division Superintendent, and school heads/principals to allow teachers to be involved in this research.

Upon approval, teachers included as respondents were selected purposively. The school principals were requested of their utmost cooperation and assistance in the administration of the survey. They were oriented about the gols of the study. On the other hand, all teachers included in the study were personally approached by the researcher for the mechanics of the survey.

After the respondents were identified and other arrangement was done, the researcher personally administered the questionnaires to the respondents and the collection of the questionnaires after they accomplished. The data-gathering lasted for the duration of 3 weeks. The accomplished questionnaires were checked if all the items were properly answered. The data was then summarized and tabulated using the SPSS.

The adopted questionnaire from Dr. V.K. Kumar and Dr. E.R. Holman ( that would measure the extent of creativity of teachers in teaching; it consisted of 15 items per category. The scale of 1 to 5 was used, five being the highest and one is the lowest. The respondents were made to identify their creativity in teaching being implemented. The levels if they Strongly Agree; Agree; Neither Agree Nor Disagree; Disagree; and Strongly Disagree.

Mean Description
4.21 – 5.00 Very High
3.41 – 4.20 High
2.61 – 3.40 Moderate
1.81 – 2.60 Low
1.00 – 1.80 Very Low

The Result based Performance Management System (RPMS) for Performance of Teachers for the school year 2015-2016 were utilized to identify the performance of the respondents, using the scale of 1 to 5 was used, five being the highest and one is the lowest. The levels if they Strongly Agree; Agree; Neither Agree Nor Disagree; Disagree; and Strongly Disagree.

The test items indicate the degree of agreement or disagreement of the responses with the following descriptions and numerical weights:

Scale Definition
5 Role model
4 Consistently demonstrates
3 Most of the time demonstrates
2 Sometimes demonstrates
1 Rarely Demonstrates

Range Adjectival Rating
4.500-5.000 Outstanding
3.500-4.499 Very Satisfactory
2.500-3.499 Satisfactory
1.500-2.499 Unsatisfactory
Below 1.499 Poor

Statistical tools that were used to analyze and interpret the data were the mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s r. The significance level was set at .05.

Result and Discussion

The Level of Creativity of Elementary Teachers Being Practiced

Generally, the extent of creativity of elementary teachers being practiced was “Very Highly Creative” (M=4.46) and when categorized; elaboration as the highest “Excellently Creative” (M=4.54); fluency “Very Highly Creative” (M=4.48); flexibility and originality as the lowest “Very Highly Creative” (M=4.41).

The results showed that teachers who seek to become creative, will start to broaden her knowledge of her own invetiveness, and the imaginative ways and different activities that she can use in order to enhance the pupils’ capcapability for original ideas and action. She will similarly make efforts in her professional independence, flexibility and reponsiveness to studetns diversity learning situations. Art is in creative teaching. One cannot tell teachers to be creative; there are no hard and fast rules. Some ways develop creative thinking, but teachers need to evolve various skills which they can apply accordingly. First, they [the characteristics of creativity] always involve thinking or to be flexible. Second, overall this elaborative activity is purposeful: that is, it is directed to achieving an objective. Third, these processes must generate something original. Fourth, the outcome must be of value in fluency to the objective.

Table 1

The Extent of the Creativity of Elementary Teachers Being Practiced

Creativity Mean Description SD
Elaboration 4.54 Excellently Creative 0.573
Fluency 4.48 Very Highly Creative 0.574
Flexibility 4.41 Very Highly Creative 0.962
Originality 4.41 Very Highly Creative 0.63
General Mean 4.46 Very Highly Creative

Mean Description
4.5 – 5.0 Excellently Creative
3.5 – 4.49 Very Highly Creative
1.5 – 3.49 Highly Creative
1.5 – 2.49 Fairly Creative
1.0- 1.49 Not Creative

The Significant Difference in the Level of Creativity of Elementary Teachers being Practice

The results revealed that there is no significant difference in the extent of creativity of elementary teachers being practiced in various area in-terms of Fluency (p=0.908); Flexibility (p=0.493); Originality (p=0.283) and Elaboration (p=0.135). Therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the extent of creativity of elementary teachers being practiced is accepted.

A rather polarized varied opinions can be observed. It can be remarked that also within the research on the field there are conflicting opinions on this significance. On contrast of the result Sawyer (2006) maintains that conceptions of creativity are changing over time and space, and that in particular idea that young ones are more creative than adult came about in the Romantic period. To him, this notion is a myth which contrasts with reality. At the opposite of this position there is the claim that schools and educators kill and restrict the natural creative attitude of young kids. Researchers demonstrated that there is a decrease in the uniqueness and originality of young people from the age of pre-adolescence, due to the rise of selfawareness and the need to conform to their peer group. Children and young people are creative, but their creative processes are less likely to be innovative breakthroughs which have a value for the whole of society. When speaking about creativity for the young, it is important to understand that the judges of the value of the creative process or output should be the young people themselves, and that the creative process or product is valuable for them. This adaptation of the definition of creativity to the educational context and to the young age of pupils is reflected in the opinions of the teachers who took part in our survey, as the majority of them are convinced of the originality that lies behind creativity but not so much on the value.

Creativity F Sig. Description Decision
Fluency 0.097 0.908 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Flexibility 0.719 0.493 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Originality 1.304 0.283 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Elaboration 2.107 0.135 Not Sig. Accept Ho

The level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers Based on the Result Based Performance Management System (RPMS) in the Different Domain

Generally, the result showed that the level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers based on the result based performance management system (RPMS) in the different domain is “Very Highly Practiced” (M=4.48) and when categorized in different domain as to Core Behavioural Competencies: Self-Management “Outstanding” (M=4.84); Professionalism and Ethics “Very Satisfactory” (M=4.25) Result Focus “Outstanding” (M=4.81); Teamwork “Very Satisfactory” (M=4.31); Service Orientation “Outstanding” (M=4.72) and Innovation “Very Satisfactory” (M=4.28). Core Skills: Oral Communication “Very Satisfactory” (M=4.06); Written Communication “Outstanding” (M=4.84) and Computer/ICT Skills “Very Satisfactory” (M=4.23).

Teacher’s ability to teach a subject contributes significantly on the achievement or students in schools. Teachers found in schools have their different peculiarities and idiosyncrasies that distinguish one entity from the other. The result supported Darling-Hammond (2012) idealism that in order to build a systematic and coherent teacher performance framework, it is important that the approaches to evaluation are adapted to the different stages of a teachers’ career. Schools should consider creating a continuum of appraisal approaches linked to professional learning and career advancement. This could start with appraisal at the end of a probationary period, be enhanced by ongoing formative and school-based appraisals, and be complemented by periodic summative appraisals for accountability purposes. Most teacher-appraisal approaches aim to use results for both formative and summative purposes. However, combining the improvement and accountability functions into a single teacher-appraisal process is not straightforward. When the appraisal is oriented towards improving teaching practices, teachers are usually prepared to reveal their weaknesses, in the expectation that conveying that information will lead to more effective decisions on developmental needs and training.

Table 3

The Level of Teaching Effectiveness of Elementary Teachers Based on the Result Based Performance Management System (RPMS) in the Different Domain

RPMS Domain Mean Description SD
Core Behavioural Competencies
Self-Management 4.84 Outstanding 0.369
Professionalism and Ethics 4.25 Very Satisfactory 0.44
Result Focus 4.81 Outstanding 0.397
Teamwork 4.31 Very Satisfactory 0.471
Service Orientation 4.72 Outstanding 0.457
Innovation 4.28 Very Satisfactory 0.457
Core Skills
Oral Communication 4.06 Very Satisfactory 0.246
Written Communication 4.84 Outstanding 0.748
Computer/ICT Skills 4.23 Very Satisfactory 0.394
General Mean 4.48 Very Satisfactory

Mean Description
4.500-5.000 Outstanding
3.500-4.499 Very Satisfactory
2.500-3.499 Satisfactory
1.500-2.499 Unsatisfactory
Below 1.499 Poor

The Significant Difference on the Level of Level of Teaching Effectiveness of Elementary Teachers according to various Domains in the Result Based Performance Management System (RPMS)

The ANOVA results showed that there is no significant difference on the level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers according to various domains in the Result based Performance Management System (RPMS) as to Core Behavioral Competencies: Self-Management (p=.603); Professionalism and Ethics (p=.359); Result Focus (p=.531); Teamwork (p=.279); Service Orientation (p=.336) and Innovation (p=336). Core Skills: Oral Communication (p=.259); Written Communication (p=.452) and Computer/ICT Skills (p=.553). Therefore the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference on the level of performance of teachers according to various domains in the Result based Performance Management System (RPMS) is accepted.

In line with the outcome, it is important that teachers’ effectiveness and development processes in a school fit with other arrangements in which schools, teachers and school leaders are involved. Performance and development processes and teacher goals should reflect the overall approach to teaching and learning within a school, and should be consistent with the school plans. It is important that teachers and school leaders experience performance and development as something that ties together the various activities they are engaged in, rather than a separate and additional process. Alignment to school plans and school-wide approaches to professional learning are particularly important.

Table 4

The Significant Difference on the Level of Teaching Effectiveness of Elementary Teachers according to various Domains in the Result Based Performance Management System (RPMS)

RPMS Domain F Sig. Description Decision
Core Behavioural Competencies
Self-Management 0.515 0.603 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Professionalism and Ethics 0.908 0.359 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Result Focus 0.647 0.531 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Teamwork 1.333 0.279 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Service Orientation 1.133 0.336 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Innovation 1.133 0.336 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Core Skills
Oral Communication 0.987 0.259 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Written Communication 0.543 0.452 Not Sig. Accept Ho
Computer/ICT Skills 0.635 0.553 Not Sig. Accept Ho

Conclusion and Recommendation

The teachers maximize their creativity in different areas such as elaboration; fluency; flexibility and originality; the teachers’ extent for creativity is the same when categories as to elaboration; fluency; flexibility and originality; the teachers are effectives when it comes to teaching as categories into various domains and the level of performance of teachers using Result Based Performance Management (RPMS) domain and the various domains is the same. It is recommended that the teachers must continue to be creative and take all opportunities for creativity enhancement; generic interventions may be used to enhance creativity of teachers; the teachers are recommended to enhance their being effective more when it comes to teaching through trainings and ciminars. Finally, the interventions to be applied upon the level of performance of teachers using Result Based Performance Management (RPMS) domain and the various domains should be the same.