Keywords

Parenting style, academic achievement

Introduction

Development of emotional and behavioral self-regulation of a child is highly influenced by parental attitude. The capacity to control emotional responses depends on the level of response and involvement of parents in a child’s life. For example, parents act as a resource for their child in social referencing. When a child is placed in a fearinducing situation, if a parent is present, the child will look toward the parent and examine facial expressions. If the parent does not show emotional distress, then the child will display less distress and more engagement in the situation [1]. As a result of the emotional regulation and social referencing, a child also experiences a level of emotional stability [2]. Not only the emotional and behavioral progress throughout each form of psychosocial development, have parents played a vital role in the positive growth of their child. Parents who influence the development of their child in a positive manner tend to have particular qualities and characteristics. These parents tend to be responsive, demanding, accepting and emphasize discussion and interaction. These parents have the characteristics of an authoritative parent [3, 4]. Past studies showed that authoritarian parenting is related low academic achievement. This means that parents with too high or too low demand and responsiveness have children with low academic achievement. Past studies have established a positive correlation between authoritative parenting style and academic achievement [5,6,7]. It is evident that parents greatly influence the development of their child. Researchers have indicated a problem of low academic achievement among the students in Iran. About 27% of high school students in Iran have low academic achievement [8,9]. The education system is very important for all country, and Bangladesh is not exception; strong and effective education can help boost the development of the country. Low academic achievement may create many negative consequences for students. Students with low academic achievement may be more vulnerable to problems such as stress, hopelessness, delinquency, psychopathology, and substance abuse [10]. Therefore, it is essential to investigate factors that may influence academic achievement amongst school going adolescents in Bangladesh. The findings will be an input to agencies and professionals that provide programs or services to promote adolescents/high school students’ development, specifically in the academic aspect. The current study intends to investigate the relation of parenting style on children’s academic performance. Specifically, this research would like to know if these different parenting styles have any effect on children’s academic performance. It is expected that present study would be helpful to all of the students because every student belongs in a family. So, parenting style has an important role on student’s academic activities. If we can identify the relation of parenting style with students’ academic performance and which parenting style is effective in high academic performance, it will be possible to inspire parents in that kind of parenting style.

Materials and Methods

Participants

The sample comprised of 110 participants who were university students .They were chosen by using simple random sampling technique. Their age ranged from 20 to 22, with a mean age of 21 years. There were 55 male and 55 female participants.

Measures

Demographic and personal information questionnaire

A demographic and personal information questionnaire was used to collect data about age, gender, number of siblings, birth order, and socio-economic status, relationship with parents and parent’s educational background and last academic result in grade point

Bangla (Adult) version of parental acceptance and rejection scale: (Standard)

The Bangla version of the parental acceptance-rejection scale developed by Ronald P. Rohner (1978). PARQ had two forms (i.e. PARQ Mother and PARQ Father) to assess both father and mothers role in a person’s life. The questionnaire contains 60 items; 20 items for measuring warmth or affection which indicate authoritative parenting style; 15 items for hostility or aggression which indicate authoritarian parenting style; 15 items for indifference or neglect which indicate permissive parenting style and 10 items for uninvolved parenting style. There were four points for each question. Options and scoring were always true-4, almost always true- 3, sometimes true- 2 and never true-1. The highest score was 240 and the lowest score was 60. Higher the score greater the wintriness of parents.

Procedure

Data were collected through standard data collection procedures. Good rapport was established with the participants in the very beginning. They were informed that the investigation is purely academic and their responses to the questionnaire would be kept confidential. They were requested to give answers on the basis of what actually happened to them rather than what they think should be happened. Then the above questionnaires were administered to them. They were requested to read the instructions printed on the questionnaires before giving any answer. When finished data were collected from them and they were given thanks for their sincere cooperation.

Data Analysis

After collecting the data, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was checked between PARQ and academic performance to see their association with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).

Results

Correlation analysis was used to find the relationship between parenting style of mother and father with academic performance separately.

Table 1: Correlation of Academic Result with PARQ-M

PARQ-M ACADEMIC RESULT
Authoritative .790**
Authoritarian -.566**
Permissive -.578**
Uninvolved -.505**

**Correlation is significant in 0.01 levels.

Table 1 indicates that, in case of mother, authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting styles were negatively correlated while mother’s acceptance was positively correlated with academic result. Correlation coefficient was found to be significant. That means, if maternal acceptance increased academic achievement increased too.

Table 2:Correlation of Academic Result with PARQ-F

PARQ (Father) Academic result
Authoritative .769**
Authoritarian -.676**
Permissive -.571**
Uninvolved -.435**

**Correlation is significant in 0.01 levels.

Table 2 indicates that, in case of father, authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting styles were negatively correlated while father’s acceptance was positively associated with academic result. Correlation coefficient was found to be significant. That means, if paternal acceptance increased academic achievement increased too.

Discussion

The present study investigated the association of parental acceptance-rejection on academic achievement. Results of Table-1 and Table-2 indicate that, parental acceptance and rejection were linked with the academic achievement of their child. Academic result was found to be positively correlated with authoritative parenting style for both parents (Mother, r=.790** p<0.01; Father, r=.769** p<0.01). Results value presented in correlation table indicates that parental acceptance significantly improved academic achievement but parental rejection lessened the academic achievement. On the other hand there is a negative correlation between authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting and academic achievement. Together, the results showed that parental acceptance enhances academic achievement whereas parental rejection lowers it. The finding focused that students having high authoritative parenting style showed high academic result than those who have authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting style.Many studies have documented that parenting has a powerful influence in child development and is often associated with child outcomes including school-relevant outcomes [11].

From talking and reading to infants to making values clear, parents exert enormous influence over their children’s development. They are, however, not the only influences, especially after children enter school. It is especially important that parents give children a good start, but it’s also important for parents to recognize that kids come into the world with their own temperaments, and it is the parents’ job to provide an interface with the world that eventually prepares a child for complete independence. In a rapidly changing world parenting seems subject to fads and changing styles, but the needs of child development as delineated by science remain relatively stable [12].

The importance of parental acceptance in our life is readily under stable. Life is full of challenges with which we have to cope all the time. Getting through these difficulties is always demanding and many a time we cannot solve the problems alone we need help and support from our parents. The benefits of parental acceptance are twofold: Direct and indirect .parental acceptance directly helps an individual by providing psychological and physical help from others in the form of emotional support, suggestions, guidance, monetary and other aids. Parental acceptance also helps us indirectly which are not clearly observable from outside such as allowing us to ventilate emotional sufferings and to have better understanding of a situation. Thus, parental acceptance can modify our appraisal of a stressor’s significance, including the degree to which we perceive it as threatening or harmful. Children everywhere need a specific form of positive responses -acceptance from parents and other primary caregivers. When this need is not meet satisfactorily, children worldwide regardless of variations in culture, gender, age, ethnicity, or other such defining conditions –tend to report themselves to be hostile and aggressive, dependent or defensively independent, impaired in self-esteem and self-adequacy, emotionally unresponsive, emotionally unstable, and to have a negative worldview, among other responses. Additionally, youths and adults who perceive them to be rejected appear to be disposed toward behavior problems and conduct disorders [13].With respect to acceptance, rejection plays exactly the opposite role. An individual is likely to perceive it as a threat for his or her social development and to his or her existence in a group or society at large, since it brings the feelings of humiliation and helplessness in a person. Consequently, it can bring anxiety and depression. So this is an effect of parental-acceptance and rejection on construction of a person’s personality that may play a crucial role in academic achievement, people with more acceptances enhances academic achievement and with more rejection reduces academic achievement as our results of the present study showed.”In our 50 years of research in every continent but Antarctica, we have found that nothing has as strong and consistent an effect on personality development as does being rejected by a parent especially by a father in childhood,” said study co-author Ronald Rohner, director of the Ronald and Nancy Rohner Center for the Study of Interpersonal Acceptance and Rejection at the University of Connecticut, in Storrs [14].

Conclusion

In conclusion it can be stated that academic performance is significantly correlated with parenting style.

Small sample size (i.e. Sample=110) was the limitation of this study. Therefore, for better understanding of correlation between parental acceptance and rejection and academic achievement it is recommended to collect data from a larger sample by simultaneously considering multiple categories of potential predictors like demographic, personality and other factors.