Keywords

Training Needs Assessment, Faculty Development Program, Administrators, Teachers

Introduction

Training and development are very vital in any organization that aims at progressing. They play important roles in the effectiveness of an organization and its workforce. Most organizations are cognizant of these requirements and invest effort and resources to ensure that workers in the organization utilize their competencies and skills. Investment in training and development is generally regarded as good management practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the future. According to Okotoni and Erero (2005), training is one of the focal aspects for organizations to develop skills, enhance productivity and quality of work and build workers’ loyalty to the organization.

The educational sector requires training programs and activities that would fit the roles of the teachers and other personnel that serve to support the school’s academic functions. The responsibilities of educators have changed radically as countries transform their educational systems to prepare students to function in today’s world of rapid technological change and globalization. One of the new roles school leaders face is to work beyond their school borders so that they can contribute not only to the success of their own school but to the success of the educational system as a whole. The increasing diversity of student population, a dynamic society and its needs, continuous changes in expectations about the quality and assessment of education plus rapid changes in information and technology, lead schools and instructors to face tasks and greater expectations from parents and society.

Hallinan and Khmelkov (2001) pointed out that improving an educational system would necessitate reforming teacher education. Without well trained, qualified and committed teachers, it is impossible to deliver effectively functioning educational systems (Unwin, 2005). On the other hand, Smaldino, Lowther and Russell (2008) stated that the teacher in tomorrow’s classrooms needs to exemplify a willingness to explore and discover new technological capabilities that enhance and expand learning experiences.

Professional development programs for teachers have always been essentially important. There has been a strong tradition of teacher training that emphasizes obtaining the required pedagogical skills, instructional technology, and practical experience for teachers.

These programs enable teachers to become highly qualified by improving, increasing and advancing their knowledge through a better understanding of effective instructional strategies. According to Moyle (2007), professional development of teachers is conducted on the assumption that improved teacher capabilities, e.g. in integrating educational technologies into their teaching, will in turn improve student learning outcomes. Vrasidas and Zembylas (2004) stated that professional development is essential for teachers to develop the content knowledge and skills they need to succeed in their classroom. By improving their skills and knowledge, teachers become better prepared to create the most effective curriculum and instructional design.

However, to improve teacher quality, teacher development needs should be identified first. In general, needs are defined as a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions. A needs analysis identifies the problem or need and then proceeds to identify the objectives, content, activities or strategies to respond to the identified gaps or needs. (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2003). Knowing the difference between where teachers are now and where they want to be plays an important role in determining the contents of a training program. Applying need analysis before a teacher-training program defines fields in which teachers need to develop their skills. The main aim will be to decrease gaps in teachers’ proficiencies in different educational needs. It should be considered that teachers have varied knowledge, proficiency and skills needs. They may show different characteristics based on their education, experiences, the subjects they teach and factors affecting their perceived proficiencies. This training needs assessment therefore would aim to identify needs specific to school administrators and teachers in the College and Basic Education Departments of the La Consolacion University Philippines. Results of the assessment would be used as basis in the preparation of a Faculty Development Plan beginning School Year 2015-2016 to 2019-2010.

Materials and Methods

Research Design

The assessment utilized the descriptive –survey method to determine the expressed needs of the 21, administrators, 23 teachers in the College Department and 23 teachers in the Basic Education (Grade and High School) Department of La Consolacion University Philippines.

Locale of the study

The assessment utilized the descriptive –survey method to determine the expressed needs of the 21 administrators, 23 teachers in the College Department and 23 teachers in the Basic Education (Grade and High School) Department of La Consolacion University Philippines.

Instrumental Analysis

Two assessment tools were used to assess the training needs of the two groups; the administrators and the teachers. The tool for the administrators determined the level of needs for the following management skills and training needs: Leadership, Motivation, Employee development, Interpersonal communication, Business communication, Taking corrective action, Employee Selection and Orientation, Problem Solving, Performance Management, Time Management and Computer and Technical skills.

On the other hand, the device used for teachers consisted of two parts: the first part determined the presence or absence of participation in the following professional development areas: Courses/workshops, education conferences or seminars, Qualification program, Observation visits to other schools, Individual or collaborative research, Mentoring, peer observation and coaching, Reading professional literature and Engaging in informal dialogue with colleagues.

The second part of the instrument determined the level of the teachers’ needs in the following areas:

  1. Content and performance standards in the subject fields
  2. Student assessment practices
  3. Classroom management
  4. Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices
  5. ICT skills for teaching, teaching students with special learning needs
  6. Student discipline and behavior problems
  7. School management and administration
  8. Teaching in a multi-cultural setting and
  9. Student counseling

Data Analysis

The responses of the administrators were classified and described as follows:

4.5 – 5.0 Very High need

3.5 – 4.49 High need

2.5 – 3.49 Moderate need

1.5 – 2.49 Low need

1.0 – 1.49 Very low need

The degree of impact in the participation for each area were also measured and interpreted as follows:

3.5 – 4.0 Large impact

2.5 – 3.49 Moderate impact

1.5 – 2.49 Small impact

1 – 1.49 No impact

The level of expressed needs were classified and interpreted according to the following scales:

3.5 – 4.0 High level of need

2.5 – 3.49 Moderate level of need

1.5 – 2.49 Low level of need

1 – 1.49 No need at all

Frequency counts, ranking, means and weighted means were utilized as statistical treatment tools to determine and describe the level of needs.

Results and Discussion

Part 1 Needs of Administrators

Part1 presents data on the results of the Training Needs Assessment for Administrators. A good leader needs to direct the people under him or her towards working for the attainment of organizational goals. The challenges associated with the changing nature of work and the workplace environment is as real for the school as any other work organizations. Every school administrator is a leader who should possess qualities and skills that would require skills, knowledge and who are adaptive, flexible, and focused on the future.

Table 1 shows the summary data on the ratings and rankings of the need areas which include skills on Leadership, Motivation, Employee development, Interpersonal communication, Business communication, Taking corrective action, Employee Selection and Orientation, Problem Solving, Performance Management, Time Management and Computer and Technical. Tables 1.1 to 1.11 pictures the weighted means for specific items for each of the major need categories.

Table 1 presents the specific skills that the administrators perceive they need to develop. They identified the top three skills that they need to develop as developing flexible/appropriate leadership styles, encouraging teamwork among employees and effective budgeting. Other leadership skill such as influencing without authority, implementing organizational change and coping with diversity in the workplace was also considered needs that have to be developed among administrators. Moderate need to discovering and applying leadership style was also expressed by the school leaders.

Table 1

Summary Data on LCUP Administrators’ Training Needs.

Need Area Weighted Mean Interpretation Rank
Leadership 3.80 High need 6
Motivation 4.10 High need 1
Employee Development 3.82 High need 5
Interpersonal Communication 4.08 High need 2
Business Communication 3.72 High need 8
Taking Corrective Action 3.75 High need 7
Employee Selection and Orientation 3.9 High need 3
Problem Solving 3.83 High need 4
Performance Management 3.65 High need 10
Time Management 3.68 High need 9
Computer and Technical skills 3.23 Moderate need 11

Table 1 reveals that the administrators expressed the highest ratings for developing skills on Motivation and Interpersonal communication. In addition, high need ratings for developing skills in Employee Selection and Orientation, Problem Solving, Employee development, Leadership, Taking corrective action, Business communication, , Time Management and Performance Management were also expressed by them. The lowest weighted mean is on the area of need for learning Computer and Technical skills which was recorded at 3.23 interpreted as moderate need. Table 1.1 presents the indicators for leadership skills that were expressed by the administrators. High need for the areas on Developing flexible/appropriate leadership styles, Developing teamwork among employees, Effective budgeting, Influencing without authority, Implementing organizational change and Diversity as a workplace issue were expressed by the respondents.

Table 1.1

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Leadership Skills

Leadership Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Discovering and applying leadership style 3.29 Moderate need
Developing flexible/appropriate leadership styles 4.19 High need
Developing teamwork among employees 4.05 High need
Effective budgeting 4.05 High need
Implementing organizational change 3.57 High need
Influencing without authority 3.90 High need
Diversity as a workplace issue 3.57 High need
Over-all Mean 3.80 High need

In today’s demanding workplace, managers are constantly challenged to find new and innovative ways to involve and motivate employees and affect positive change that improves the company’s bottom line. Motivating the workforce is an important component of ensuring productivity and efficiency of the employees in an organization. In the school setting, it is important that administrators motivate their teachers to utilize their competencies and apply techniques and strategies that would facilitate the teaching-learning process and enable students to learn optimally. Table 1.2 presents the specific motivation skills that administrators expressed high need for development. On top of the list is discovering alternate reward systems for employees and preventing employee “burnout” followed by improving work climate, developing employee morale and discovering and working with employee work styles.

Table 1.2

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Motivation Skills

Motivation Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Discovering and working with employee work styles 3.86 High need
Ways to improve work climate 4.05 High need
Developing Employee morale 4.05 High need
Discovering alternate reward systems for employees 4.33 High need
Preventing employee “burnout” 4.19 High need
Over-all Mean 4.10 High need

Employee development activities help in the growth and development of employees who are the most important resources of an organization. Administrators need to have skills to ensure the professional development of the teaching force of the university. Specifically, employee development is important for the teaching personnel to enhance their skills and upgrade their existing knowledge in order to perform better. Employee development activities enable personnel to acquire new skills and learning and prepare them for adverse conditions and unforeseen situations.This is important both for their professional and personal growth. Table 1 presents the data on the employee development skills needed by the administrators. The table reveals that all of the items in this category are regarded as needed on a high level by the administrators. These are training new employees/work procedures, effective delegation, mentoring, coaching and counseling the teachers.

Table 1.3

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Employee Development Skills

Employee Development Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Effective delegation 3.76 High need
Coaching and counseling employees 3.62 High need
Training new employees/work procedures 4.19 High need
How to be a mentor 3.71 High need
Over-all Mean 3.82 High need

A primary characteristic of an effective school administrator as a leader is the ability to work with others. To be able to work with others, one need to communicate effectively to ensure that messages are properly sent and decoded. Effective communication skills are essential to establish good working relationships with many different people.

Table 1.4

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Interpersonal Communication Skills

Employee Development Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Effective listening skills 4.10 High need
Giving and receiving constructive criticism 3.71 High need
Dealing with difficult personalities 4.19 High need
Conflict Management techniques 4.33 High need
Over-all Mean 4.08 High need

Table 1.4 shows that interpersonal communication skills indicated by conflict management techniques, dealing with difficult personalities, effective listening skills and giving and receiving constructive criticisms are highly needed skills by LCUP administrators.

Table 1.5

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Business Communication Skills

Business Communication Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Art of Negotiating 4.29 High need
Business Writing 3.81 High need
Oral presentation skills 3.76 High need
Working effectively with boards and committees in a political environment 3.86 High need
Media relations 3.38 Moderate need
Developing and writing desk and office procedures 3.24 Moderate need
Over-all Mean 3.72 High need

No organization is perfect, thus, a leader has to be prepared for work related conflicts and problems. Administrators should know how to properly monitor and measure the deficient work products, processes and/or behavior of teachers in an effort to improve performance or modify behavior. From Table 1.6 it can be deduced that the high need areas include dealing with employee complaints and grievances and applying positive discipline techniques.

Table 1.6

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Taking Corrective Action Skills

Taking Corrective Action Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Dealing with employee complaints and grievances 3.86 High need
Apply positive discipline techniques 4.05 High need
How to document performance 3.33 Moderate need
Over-all Mean 3.75 High need

The quality of performance of workers is dependent on selection of the most qualified applicants and then orienting those who were selected. Knowledge on hiring, conducting interviews and applying labor standards are important information for managers/administrators. Table 1.7 shows that administrators identified Job analysis and knowledge about DOLE and other legal aspects of hiring as highly needed.

Table 1.7

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Employee Selection and Orientation Skills

Employee Selection and Orientation Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Job analysis 4.05 High need
Developing and conducting employee interviews 3.33 Moderate need
DOLE and other legal aspects of hiring 4.33 High need
Over-all Mean 3.90 High need

Table 1.8

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Problem Solving Skills

Problem Solving Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Determining root causes of problems 3.76 High need
Using effective problem solving methods 4.14 High need
Employing group decision making techniques 4.05 High need
Developing, administering and analyzing customer service surveys 3.48 Moderate need
Implementing improved customer service techniques 3.76 High need
Systems and process analysis 3.81 High need
Over-all Mean 3.83 High need

Performance management is another vital component of school administration. This skill encompasses setting work standards for teachers then getting feedback and conducting performance evaluation and measurement. From Table 1.9 it can be seen that the administrators considered all of these areas as high training needs.

Table 1.9

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Performance Management Skills

Performance Management Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Setting goals and standards 3.62 High need
Conducting employee performance evaluation discussions 3.67 High need
Obtaining employee performance feedback 3.52 High need
Understanding and applying university policies and procedures 3.43 Moderate need
Performance measurement 4.00 High need
Over-all Mean 3.65 High need

Time management aims to increase productivity by planning the amount of time spent in activities or tasks that need to be performed. This skill is necessary to maximize the work completed in a given amount of time. The administrators of LCUP cited Project management, Personal time management and Long-term goal setting as training areas that are highly needed.

Table 1.10

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Time Management Skills

Time Management Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Personal time management 3.67 High need
Project management 3.71 High need
Long-term goal setting 3.67 High need
Over-all Mean 3.68 High need

In today’s computer age, school administrators need to be attuned with the call for information technology knowledge and updates. Table 1.11 shows the level of needs of the administrators in LCUP. Data would show that high need for training was indicated in Adobe Photoshop as a computer/technical skill. Other skills such as keyboard, Basic PC/Windows, Network training, Microsoft word and PowerPoint were categorized as moderate needs. This would mean that administrators have sufficient knowledge in basic computer skills.

Table 1.11

Administrators’ Level of Needs for Computer and Technical Skills

Computer and Technical Skill Weighted Mean Interpretation
Keyboard skills 2.86 Moderate need
Basic PC/Windows 3.14 Moderate need
Network training 3.48 Moderate need
Microsoft word 2.76 Moderate need
Microsoft Power point 3.19 Moderate need
Adobe Photoshop 3.95 High need
Over-all Mean 3.23 Moderate need

Part 2 2.1 Needs of College Teachers

Table 2

Data on College Teachers’ Participation in Professional Development Activities

Activity Yes No Impact
f % f % None 1 Small impact 2 Moderateimpact 3 Large impact 4 Weighted Mean INT
Courses/workshops related to teaching 21 91.30 2 8.70 0 0 7 14 3.67 Large Impact
Education conferences/seminars 19 82.61 4 17.39 0 0 8 11 3.58 Large Impact
Qualification/degree program 13 56.52 10 43.48 0 0 3 10 3.77 Large Impact
Observation visits to other schools 7 30.43 16 69.57 0 0 2 5 2.36 Large Impact
Participation in a network of teachers formed specifically for the professional development of teachers 11 47.83 12 52.17 0 0 4 7 3.64 Large Impact
Individual or collaborative research 10 43.48 13 56.52 0 0 4 6 3.60 Large Impact
Mentoring, peer observation and coaching 10 43.48 13 56.52 0 0 4 6 3.60 Large Impact
Reading professional literature 18 78.26 5 21.74 0 2 7 9 3.39 Large Impact
dialogue with colleagues on how to improve teaching 19 82.61 4 17.39 0 0 8 13 3.68 Large Impact

This section presents data on the teachers’ participation in professional development activities. Professional development activities are necessary for teachers to adapt to the changing needs of learners from different levels. Teachers need to be updated on the recent teaching techniques, strategies, knowledge and skills that they should possess. Provision of development activities for teachers vary and should be based on their specific needs to ensure that the teaching-learning process is effective. Table 2 presents the responses of the college teachers in terms of their participation in professional development activities including the impact of their participation. Table 3 on the other hand shows the degree of the expressed needs of the teachers.

Table 3

College Teachers’ Expressed Professional Development Needs

Area Weighted Mean Interpretation Rank
Content and performance standards in subject field/s 3.13 Moderate need 2.5
Student assessment practices 2.87 Moderate need 7
Classroom management 2.87 Moderate need 7
Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s 2.57 Moderate need 11
Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s 3.00 Moderate need 5
ICT skills for teaching 3.13 Moderate need 2.5
Teaching students with special learning needs 3.17 Moderate need 1
Student discipline and behavior problems 3.09 Moderate need 4
Student discipline and behavior problems 2.74 Moderate need 10
Teaching in a multicultural setting 2.78 Moderate need 9
Student counseling 2.87 Moderate need 7
Over-all Mean 2.93 Moderate need

Based from the data presented in Table 3, it can be deduced that the top five needs of the teachers are the following: Teaching students with special learning needs, Content and performance standards in subject field/s, ICT skills for teaching, Student discipline and behavior problems and Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s. The other areas are also expressed as moderate needs.

2.2 Needs of Basic Education Teachers

Table 4 showcases the responses of the Basic Education teachers in terms of their participation in professional development activities as well as the impact of their participation while Table 5 presents the degree of the expressed needs of the teachers.

Table 4

Data on Basic Education Teachers’ Participation in Professional Development Activities

Activity Yes No Impact
f % f % None 1 Small impact 2 Moderateimpact 3 Large impact4 Weighted Mean INT
Courses/workshops related to teaching 21 91.3 2 8.97 1 5 12 5 4.19 Large Impact
Education conferences/seminars 17 73.91 6 26.08 1 8 10 4 3.94 Large Impact
Qualification/degree program 11 47.83 12 52.17 0 9 6 8 4.25 Large Impact
Observation visits to other schools 10 43.48 7 56.52 1 9 10 3 3.81 Large Impact
Participation in a network of teachers formed specifically for the professional development of teachers 16 69.57 11 30.43 1 6 13 3 4.00 Large Impact
Individual or collaborative research 12 52.17 4 47.83 0 7 11 5 4.19 Large Impact
Mentoring, peer observation and coaching 19 82.61 4 17.39 0 4 14 4 4.13 Large Impact
Reading professional literature 20 86.96 3 13.04 1 3 12 7 4.44 Large Impact
Engaging in informal dialogue with colleagues on how to improve teaching 19 82.61 4 17.39 1 4 14 4 4.19 Large Impact

Data from Table 4 would show that majority or 91.3% of the Basic Education teachers participated in courses/workshops related to teaching. Big number or percentages of 86.96% and were involved in reading professional literature as self-development activities. About 82.61% experienced mentoring, peer observation and coaching and another 82.61% were engaged in informal dialogue with colleagues on how to improve teaching. About 73.61% of the teachers has attended education conferences/seminars while 52.71% has been involved in individual or collaborative research. All of these activities have large impact on the teachers as education professionals.

Table 5

Basic Education Teachers’ Expressed Professional Development Needs

Area Weighted Mean Interpretation Rank
Content and performance standards in subject field/s 4.19 High need 5
Student assessment practices 3.94 High need 10
Classroom management 4.25 High need 3
Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s 3.81 High need 11
Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s 4.00 High need 8.5
ICT skills for teaching 4.19 High need 5
Teaching students with special learning needs 4.13 High need 7
Student discipline and behavior problems 4.44 High need 1
School management and administration 4.19 High need 5
Teaching in a multicultural setting 4.00 High need 8.5
Student counseling 4.31 High need 2
Over-all Mean 4.13 High need

Based from the data presented in Table 5, it can be deduced that the Basic Education teachers expressed high needs for all the listed professional development needs. The list was topped by student discipline and behavior problems followed by student counseling and classroom management. The other areas identified to be highly needed are the following: Content and performance standards in subject field/s, ICT skills for teaching, School management and administration, Teaching students with special learning needs, Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s, Teaching in a multicultural setting and Student assessment practices and Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s.

CONCLUSIONS

Preparation of a developmental plan that would incorporate the results of the training needs assessment survey. The plan should include specific activities for the administrators and the teachers. For the administrators the focus will be on the following areas :

  1. Leadership skills on Developing flexible/appropriate leadership styles, Developing teamwork among employees, Effective budgeting, Influencing without authority, Implementing organizational change and Diversity as a workplace issue were expressed by the respondents.
  2. Motivational skills on discovering alternate reward systems for employees and preventing employee “burnout” followed by improving work climate, developing employee morale and discovering and working with employee work styles.
  3. Employee development skills focused on training new employees/work procedures, effective delegation, mentoring, coaching and counseling the teachers.
  4. Interpersonal communication skills emphasizing conflict management techniques, dealing with difficult personalities, effective listening skills and giving and receiving constructive criticisms
  5. Business communication skills for areas such as art of negotiating, working with boards and committees, business writing, and oral presentation skills.
  6. Corrective action skills such as dealing with employee complaints and grievances and applying positive discipline techniques.
  7. Employee selection and orientation skills on Job analysis and knowledge about DOLE and other legal aspects of hiring
  8. Problem solving skills on using effective problem solving methods, employing group decision making techniques, systems and process analysis, determining root causes of problems and implementing improved customer service techniques.
  9. Performance management skills indicated by setting work standards for teachers then getting feedback and conducting performance evaluation and measurement.
  10. Time management skills emphasizing Project management, Personal time management and Long-term goal setting.
  11. Adobe Photoshop as a computer/technical skill.

For the College teachers, the following are the recommended areas as targets of the developmental plan:

  1. Teaching students with special learning needs
  2. Content and performance standards in subject field/s
  3. ICT skills for teaching
  4. Student discipline and behavior problems
  5. Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s
  6. Student assessment practices
  7. Classroom management
  8. Teaching in a multicultural setting
  9. Student counseling
  10. School management and administration
  11. Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s.

For the Basic Education teachers, the following were identified as training needs:

  1. Student discipline and behavior problems
  2. Student counseling
  3. Classroom management
  4. Content and performance standards in subject field/s
  5. ICT skills for teaching
  6. School management and administration
  7. Teaching students with special learning needs
  8. Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s
  9. Teaching in a multicultural setting
  10. Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s.
  11. Student assessment practices