Key words

Movements, heritage, belongingness, Vedas, preaching

Introduction

As we all know that education has a great impact on the society especially in the modern and complex industrialized civilizations. Right from the earlier stages, the Philosophers starting with the ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories about the nature and objective came into being. Some of the significant functions of education are:

Socialization

The very purpose or objective of education is social factor thereby to complete the socialization process. During the course of expanding and up bringing the family we children and the modern family trends speak much about the socialisation process. The school and other similar institutions played role for completing the socialization process.

Transmitting The Heritage

All societies maintain themselves, by exploitation of a culture. Culture here refers to a set of beliefs and skills, art, literature, philosophy, religion, music etc. that are not carried through the mechanism of heredity. This social heritage (culture) must be transmitted through social organisations. Education has this function of cultural transmission in all societies. It is under the leaves of the school that any serious attempt has been, or now is, made to deal with this area.

Making Out Social Personality

Individual must have personalities shaped or fashioned in ways that fit into the culture. Education, has one of the function of the formation of social personalities and it helps in transmitting culture through proper transferring of social personalities. Education in a way contributes to the integration, to survive and to reproduce themselves.

Behavioral Reformation

Reforming the attitudes related to behavior which might have developed in a non-required or wrong way amongst the children turns the children to absorb a host of attitudes, beliefs and disbeliefs, loyalties and prejudices, jealously and hatred etc. and hence need to be reformed.

Another function of education related to behavior is to see that unfounded beliefs, illogical prejudices and unreasoned loyalties are removed from the child’s mind, even there might be limitations but still it is expected to continue by way of contributing its efforts in reforming the attitudes of the concerned children.

Earning Livelihood

For earning the livelihood, education has a practical to play and to help the adolescent for earning his livelihood. Education has come to be today as nothing more than an Instrument of livelihood. It should enable the student to take out his livelihood. Getting or imparting any type of education, it must prepare the student for future occupational positions, the youth should be enabled to play a productive role in society.

Up-Gradation Of Status

Conferring of status is one of the most important functions of education. The amount of education one has, is correlated with his class position. U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Japan, Germany are the live examples of such status. It will be proper to co-relate to one’s position with relation to education in the stratification structure in two ways:

An evaluation of one’s status is partially decided by what kind of education one has received and many the other important criteria of class position such as occupation, income and style of life are partially the result of the type and amount of education one has had.

Men who finish college, for example, earn two and a half times as much as those who have a grammar school education.

Spirit Of Belongingness Brings The Education

The school thrashes cooperative values through civic and patriotic exhortation or advice. Yet the school’s main emphasis is upon personal competition. For each subject studied the child is compared with the companies by percentage of marks or rankings.

Meaning

The word “Education” has been derived from the Latin term “Educated” which means the act of teaching or training. Educationists opine that this word came from another Latin word “Educate” which means “to bring up” or “to rise”. There are some other opinions which gives rise about the word “Education” and say that it has originated from another Latin term “Educate” which means “to lead forth” or “to come out”.

The very purpose of the meanings is giving indication about education by seeking and nourishing the good qualities in people and drawing them to the best in every individual. Therefore, education is developing the innate inner capacities of human being.

Educating the person or the society is an attempt to give the desired knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitudes and thoughts which is acquired through the wisdom, knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and sciences and so on and so forth. The development of understanding in life, the complexity of human relations, cause and effects of relationship etc. gives rise in acquiring or imparting knowledge or education. It is also a kind of getting some skills in writing, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipment etc. The development of interests in oneself and attitudes towards social work, democratic living, co-operative management and so on are some of the forms of education.

Human being an individual of the society, has to think critically about various issues in life, take required or needed decisions about them with free will may be far away from biasness or prejudices, superstitions and blind beliefs and even otherwise also. It can, therefore, be said that education is way of learning the qualities of head, hand and heart through the process of education.

Definitions

The Concepts of Education are described right from the conception and are very important and are even gives rise in the Vedas, Upanishad, Bhagwat Gita, sayings and preaching by Shankaracharya, Kautilya, Panini, Vivekananda, Gandhiji and so on. These can be summarized as Principles of Education and School Organization:

  • Rigved: “Education is something which makes man self-reliant and selfless”.
  • Upanishad: “Education is for liberation”.
  • Bhagavad Gita: “Nothing is more purifying on earth than wisdom.”
  • Shankaracharya: “Education is the realization of self’.
  • Gunrunner: “Education is self-realization and service to people”.
  • Kautilya: “Education means training of the country and love of the nation”.
  • Panini: “Human education means the training which one gets from nature”.
  • Vivekanand: “Education is the manifestation of the divine perfection, already existing in man.”
  • Gandhi: “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the Child and man body, mind and spirit.”
  • 10.Rabindra Nath Tagore: “The widest road leading to the solution of all our problems is education.”

Concepts of education

Eminent thinkers and philosophers also gave the concept of education, some of these are:

  • Socrates: “Education means the bringing out of the ideas of universal validity which are latent in the mind of every man”.
  • Plato: “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection which he is capable of.”
  • Aristotle: “Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body. It develops man’s faculty, especially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty of which perfect happiness essentially consists.
  • Rousseau: “Education of man commences at his birth; before he can speak, before he can understand he is already instructed. Experience is the forerunner of the perfect”.
  • Herbert Spencer: “Education is complete living”.
  • Heinrich Pestalozzi: “Education is natural harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers”.
  • Friedrich Willian Froebel: “Education is unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes internal external”.

Objective

The very purpose or objective of this study is to know about the knowledge, education, its origin, development, use and know about the start of education, role of society its need.

It is also felt necessary to learn this topic so that the various phases of academia are kept in mind so that the repercussions, good and better things or activities are analyzed and research is done so that whenever and whatever is need for further reference together with the positive aspects are used.

Studying various material available in the world in the form of VEDAs, Literatures, books, magazines, saying, quotes etc. are also beneficial for the development of the society and proper study shall give rise for proper use of the wisdom by imparting knowledge so that all corners / sites are benefitted.

The history right from the ancient period to the present time gives various aspects covered viz. the development, ethics, moral value, economics, technical knowhow etc.

Literature review

History Of Education

It is believed that with the rise of trade, government, and formal religion came the invention of writing, by about 3100 BC. The river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia started transmitting directly from person to person and from generation to generation. The method of learning was memorization, and the motivation was the fear of harsh physical discipline. The discovery by Archaeologists spells out education “Thou didst beat me and knowledge entered my head.”

The root of education or academic arena in the ancient time was with the peoples of the Middle East, the Jews were the most insistent that all children–regardless of class–be educated.

Ancient Greece

The Greek gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East. Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world–such as the sun, the moon, and the sea–they were closer to man and to the world he lived in.

Sparta

The boys of Sparta were obliged to leave home at the age of 7 to join sternly disciplined groups under the supervision of a hierarchy of officers. From age 7 to 18, they underwent an increasingly severe course of training.

Ancient Rome

The military conquest of Greece by Rome in 146 BC resulted in the cultural conquest of Rome by Greece. As the Roman poet Horace said, “Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror and brought the arts to Latium.”

The Romans also left the legacy of their language. For nearly a thousand years after the fall of the empire, Latin continued to be the language spoken in commerce, public service, education, and the Roman Catholic church.

The Middle Ages

The invading Germanic tribes that moved into the civilized world of the West and all but destroyed ancient culture provided virtually no formal education for their young.

For the Middle Ages knowledge was an authoritative body of revealed truth. It was not for the scholar to observe nature and to test, question, and discover truth for himself but to interpret and expound accepted doctrines.

Medieval education had its problems. There were many dropouts; the influence of the church sometimes drugged rather than enlivened the mind; and scholars were often expected to accept the unreasoned and the unproved. Materials were few and poor. Many university libraries had fewer than a hundred volumes. Nevertheless, medieval schooling ended the long era of barbarism, launched the careers of able men, and sharpened the minds and tongues of the thoughtful and ambitious students.

For youngsters of the aristocracy in the Middle Ages of the 13th century, there was chivalric education.

The Renaissance

The essence of the Renaissance, which began in Italy in the 14th century and spread to northern European countries in the 15th and 16th centuries, was a revolt against the narrowness and otherworldliness of the Middle Ages.

The actual content of the humanists’ “liberal education” was not much different from that of medieval education. To the seven liberal arts, the humanists added history and physical games and exercises. Humanist education was primarily enlivened by the addition of Greek to the curriculum and an emphasis on the content of Greek and

Roman literature. After nearly a thousand years grammar at last was studied not as an end in itself but because it gave access to the vital content of literature. In keeping with their renewed interest in and respect for nature, the humanists also gradually purged astronomy of many of the distortions of astrology.

The Reformation

The degeneration in practice of the early humanists’ educational goals and methods continued during the 16thcentury Reformation and its aftermath. The religious conflict that dominated men’s thoughts also dominated the “humanistic” curriculum of the Protestant secondary schools.

17th- and 18th-Century Europe

The vast majority of schools remained in a state of stagnation during the 17th and 18th centuries. By and large, the teachers were incompetent and the discipline cruel.

The 18th century. It was the delayed shock waves of the ideas of an 18th-century Frenchman that were to crack the foundations of education in the 20th century and cause their virtual upheaval in the United States. The man was Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78).

19th-Century Europe

In the 19th century the spirit of nationalism grew strong in Europe and, with it, the belief in the power of education to shape the future of nations as well as individuals. Other European countries followed Prussia’s example and eventually established national school systems. France had one by the 1880s, and by the 1890s the primary schools in England were free and compulsory.

Thoughts of BAPU (Mahatma Gandhi’s views)

Mahatma Gandhi was a critic of traditional education and viewed that “By education, I mean an all-round drawing of the best in child and man in body, mind and spirit.”

Bapu gave rise by teaching and preaching that the Education is the backbone of any society and is largely responsible for its upliftment. Gandhiji admired that the education should have at least covered following important aspects viz.:

  • Free primary education
  • Place of vocational education
  • Emphasis on morality
  • Non-participation in politics
  • Women education
  • Gandhi’s Sarvodaya
  • Upliftment of all
  • Ideal social order
  • Good for one and all
  • Application in economic field
  • Application in political field
  • Social movement

Thoughts Of Other Educationists

Noted Sociologist Charles Tilly defined social movements as a series of contentious performances, displays and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. Charles Tilly said that the social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people’s participation in public politics.

Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as collective challenges to elites, authorities, other groups or cultural codes] by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities. He specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups.

The Framework presents a holistic view of 21st century teaching and learning that combines a discrete focus on 21st century student outcomes (a blending of specific skills, content knowledge, expertise and literacies) with innovative support systems to help students master the multi-dimensional abilities required of them in the 21st century and beyond.

The graphic represents both 21st century student outcomes & learning support systems

Research methodology

Study of worldwide history and available resources / data / material available in published form or web based material is used. Wherever required the examples of various thoughts and analysis is also co-related.

It is believed that education fosters participant democracy. Participant democracy in any large and complex society depends on literacy. Literacy allows full participation of the people in democratic processes and effective voting. Literacy is a product of education. Educational system has this economic as well as political significance.

As the education Imparts values, the curriculum of the school, its extracurricular activities and the informal relationships amongst students and teacher communicate social skills and values. Through various activities a school imparts values such as co-operation or atmospheric, obedience, fair play.Social movement theories

Sociologists have developed several theories related to social movements. Some of the better-known approaches are :

Deprivation Theory

Deprivation theory argues that social movements have their foundations among people who feel deprived of some good(s) or resource(s). According to this approach, individuals who are lacking some good, service, or comfort are more likely to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions.

There are two significant problems with this theory. First, since most people feel deprived at one level or another almost all the time, the theory has a hard time explaining why the groups that form social movements do when other people are also deprived. Second, the reasoning behind this theory is circular – often the only evidence for deprivation is the social movement. If deprivation is claimed to be the cause but the only evidence for such is the movement, the reasoning is circular.

Mass Society Theory

Mass society theory argues that social movements are made up of individuals in large societies who feel insignificant or socially detached. Social movements, according to this theory, provide a sense of empowerment and belonging that the movement members would otherwise not have.

Very little support has been found for this theory. Aho (1990), in his study of Idaho Christian Patriotism, did not find that members of that movement were more likely to have been socially detached. In fact, the key to joining the movement was having a friend or associate who was a member of the movement.

Structural Strain Theory

Social strain theory, also known as value-added theory, proposes six factors that encourage social movement development structural conduciveness – people come to believe their society has problems structural strain – people experience deprivation growth and spread of a solution – a solution to the problems people are experiencing is proposed and spreads precipitating factors – discontent usually requires a catalyst (often a specific event) to turn it into a social movement lack of social control – the entity that is to be changed must be at least somewhat open to the change; if the social movement is quickly and powerfully repressed, it may never materialize mobilization – this is the actual organizing and active component of the movement; people do what needs to be done This theory is also subject to circular reasoning as it incorporates, at least in part, deprivation theory and relies upon it, and social/structural strain for the underlying motivation of social movement activism. However, social movement activism is, like in the case of deprivation theory, often the only indication that there was strain or deprivation.

Resource Mobilization Theory

Resource mobilization theory emphasizes the importance of resources in social movement development and success. Resources are understood here to include: knowledge, money, media, labor, solidarity, legitimacy, and internal and external support from power elite. The theory argues that social movements develop when individuals with grievances are able to mobilize sufficient resources to take action. The emphasis on resources offers an explanation why some discontented/deprived individuals are able to organize while others are not.

Political Process Theory

Political process theory is similar to resource mobilization in many regards, but tends to emphasize a different component of social structure that is important for social movement development: political opportunities. Political process theory argues that there are three vital components for movement formation: insurgent consciousness, organizational strength, and political opportunities.

Role Of NGOs In Imparting Education In The Society

Non-government organizations (NGOs) also play a vital role in educating and helping people to a greater extent. The helpless, distressed and deprive people are helped, promoted, counselling is given and choosing the right direction in the right manner by way of path showing is used by the NGO’s. The NGOs also helped and contributed to the development of the society.

Running the developmental programs for all or various sections of the society be they belong to the slum dwellers, weaker sections, deprived children etc. various welfare programmes or measures for the upliftment of both the men and women required programmes are devised and organized.

There being flexibility in the objectives of the NGOs, the rectification and identification of social issues in the society in a regular basis is widespread. It is without any disputed fact that by helping weaker section in the society, we are building a stronger nation. Several NGO’s in develop many programs and work on many different projects that would help poor people in changing their life and all have separate motive to server on different direction so also look certified NGO lists those mentioned their goals and share their NGO project. Concerned government also take care on this section Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are given priority for upbringing the society.

Self-Help Organizations Also Contribute For The Welfare Or Upliftment In Various Fields Viz.

  • By Promoting social awareness and Uplift of the poor, particularly women
  • By educating rural people and ensure their primary education
  • By improving maternal health and nutrition and combat diseases
  • By way of promoting leadership
  • By Promoting appropriate and affordable technologies

NGOs maintain a vital role between government and profit sectors such as:

  • Serve as watchdog of both government and business
  • Disseminate information
  • Enable experimentation and social change
  • Supplement government efforts
  • Act as innovators and Mobilize resources
  • Provide training

Relativity of 21st century

The elements described in this section as “21st century student outcomes” are the knowledge, skills and expertise students should master to succeed in work and life in the 21st century. The CORE SUBJECTS AND 21st CENTURY THEMES and subjects include:

  • Government and Civics
  • Global Awareness
  • Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in personal, work and community contexts
  • Understanding other nations and cultures
  • Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy
  • Know how to make appropriate personal economic choices
  • Civic Literacy

The 21st Century education leads in imparting the knowledge related to Creativity and Inn ovation with Others and gives rise in adopting by learning in:

  • Implement Innovations
  • Critical thinking and problem solving
  • Use Systems Thinking
  • Make Judgments and Decisions
  • Solve Problems
  • Communication & collaboration
  • Information literacy
  • Create Media Products
  • Apply Technology Effectively
  • Life and career skills
  • Flexibility and adaptability
  • Initiative and self-direction
  • Be Self-directed Learners,
  • Social and cross cultural skills
  • Productivity and accountability

Findings

Mahatma Gandhi was a critic of traditional education and viewed that “By education, I mean an all-round drawing of the best in child and man in body, mind and spirit.”

Bapu gave rise by teaching and preaching that the education is the backbone of any society and is largely responsible for its up-liftment. While taking into consideration several processes throughout the history of social movements education led to larger settlements, where people of similar goals could find each other, gather and organize. By spreading of democracy and political rights like the freedom of speech made the creation and functioning of social movements much easier.

Types of Social Movement

It is found that sociologists have different thought which distinguish between several types of social movement such as:

  • reform movement
  • radical movement
  • innovation movement
  • conservative movement

While addressing to various components, some of the related targets also make place right from the evolution level to the 21st century and these can be arranged for using Group-focus movements.

Keeping focus on affecting groups or society in general, for example, advocating the change of the political system. Some of these groups transform into or join a political party, but many remain outside the reformist party political system.

Individual-Focused Movements

The individual’s based focuses mainly affecting them directly or indirectly, are most religious movements would fall under this category. Methodology of performing their task or work also leads in imparting the education such as; peaceful movements and violent movements.

By mixing the viewpoints of old and new movement as far as the education or academic arena is concern, old movements which existed for centuries lead to change. Various such movements, fought for specific social groups, working class, peasants, whites, aristocrats, and also for the protestants. While the new movement which is also called the 21st century movements are found to be dominant and cover the feminist movement, choice movements, civil rights movement, environmental movement, gay rights movement, peace movement, antinuclear movement, alter-globalization movement, etc. Generally the movements focus around issues that go beyond but are not separate from class

Dynamics of social movements (Various stages of Social Movements)

Success
Failure
Emerge Coalesce Bureaucratise Cooperation Decline
Repression
Go main stream

Conculsion

The role played by Non-government organizations (NGOs) is a very important in the way of helping the citizens of the country. Various welfare programs conducted by the NGOs for serving various segments of the society is considered to be the best way to work for the poorer section of the society world-wide.

Critical analysis and message given by Mahatma Gandhi regarding the traditional education and is viewed by saying that “By education, I mean an all-round drawing of the best in child and man in body, mind and spirit.” Bapu gave rise by teaching and preaching that the education is the backbone of any society and is largely responsible for its upliftment.

While taking into consideration several processes throughout the history of social movements education led to larger settlements, where people of similar goals could find each other, gather and organize. By spreading of democracy and political rights like the freedom of speech made the creation and functioning of social movements much easier.

It is found that sociologists have different thought which distinguish between several types of social movement related to reform movement, radical movement, innovation movement, conservative movement.

Recommendations

The field is open for further studies in various fields including the developmental, historical, biological, sociological, financial etc. The teachings and preaching given in the various holy books, sayings of saints and academicians lead to a great way. Whatever is gained or achieved by individual or public also contributes for the upliftment of the society at large.

The adoption from the good deeds from the available material shall be a boon for the general public and the recommendations give a fruitful result.

It may, therefore be concluded that the adoption of education in any form from various segments of life play a dynamic role, it is the duty of the human beings to practice them based on the pros and cons of the studies or findings from various parts / corners of researchers. However, it is open for the further researchers to study various components of education, adopt the pluses and recommend for any of the deficiencies found or adopted in the past. The study on education and its impact on the society is concluded as open ended.