Keywords

Servant Leadership

Introduction

The term ‘servant leadership’, in simple words, means the leader puts others before him, with an aim to achieve results for their organization by keeping in mind the needs of the people. A servant leader is looked upon as an unpretentious agent of his/her company’s resources. S/he achieves authority rather than power wherein the former ensures the well-being of the team around him. An individual with traits like empathy, good listening skills, stewardship and a commitment to growth of others is a true servant leader. Servant leaders must be extremely active while considering any problem; they must be self-aware and caring; they should nurture the professional and spiritual growth of their colleagues by believing in their intrinsic value to the company. It is a completely different domain of leadership where a leader becomes a servant for the well being of his/her organization.

Greenleaf [6] asserted that servant-leaders put the needs and interests of others above their own. They make a deliberate choice to serve others. However, this should not be associated with a low self-concept or low self-esteem. A strong self image, moral conviction, and emotional stability are factors that drive leaders to make this choice. [20]The servant-leader seeks to make sure that other people’s highest-priority needs are being served. Servant-leaders seek to transform their followers to grow healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, and more likely themselves to become servants” [6].

Servant-leaders respect the capabilities of their followers and enable them to exercise their abilities, share power, and do their best [18]. The servant-leader is prepared to share power through empowerment, thereby involving followers in planning and decision making [2] stated that, “Wise leaders lead others to lead themselves”, which ultimately leads to a decentralized organizational structure that focuses on information and power sharing. Many managers struggle with the processes of empowerment and delegation [1] [19] but these are essential behaviors of the servant-leader.[4] quotes .

Greenleaf as saying: “The only authority deserving our allegiance is that which is freely granted by the led to the leader in proportion to the servant stature of the leader”. Thus, the leader gains power by exercising his or her servant qualities such as empowerment and service, rather than the traditional view that power sharing will diminish his or her ability to influence followers. An analysis of servant leadership theory’s strengths and weaknesses reveals that servant leadership’s value based leadership helps organizations in the school environment where values, empowerment, and commitment play a big role in success. This research will serve as a baseline of the recommendations and other future decisions as regards Servant Leadership and Reform Initiative of SUCs President in Panay Island; hence, this study.

Statement of the Problem

  • What is the level of servant leadership among the SUC’s in Panay Island?
  • What is the extent of reform initiatives of SUC’s Presidents in terms of: Instruction; Research; Extension; and Production?
  • Is the level of servant leadership significantly related to the reform initiatives of the SUC’s?
  • Is there a significant relationship in the servant leadership and reform initiatives of the SUC’s in terms of: Instruction; Research; Extension; and Production?

Material and Method

This survey- correlational research aimed to ascertain the servant leadership and reform initiatives of SUCs president in Panay Island.The research was conducted on October 2011 the respondents were seven (7) University and Colleges Presidents in different SUCs in Panay island.The purposive sampling method was used in the selection of the desired samples. To gather the data, the researcher employed two standardized data-gathering instruments used in previous studies and had been validated and pilot-tested. The instruments were revised at certain degree to suit the needs of the present study. The Servant Leadership (SL) developed by Laub [29]; and the researcher made questionnaire was developed to determined the extent of reform initiatives of SUC’s Presidents, respectively. Approval to conduct the research in the different colleges and universities in panay island was taken from the President’s office and the data collected will be subjected to SPSS with statistical tools of mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s r Correlation with a alpha level of significance of .05. The data will be interpreted and analyzed.

Results and Discussion

Level of Servant Leadershipof the SUC Presidents in Panay Island

The level of Servant Leadership among the SUCs in Panay Island is presented in the succeeding table (2) with the mean and corresponding description for each item. The level of servant leadership among the SUC in Panay Island obtained an overall means of (4.33) which described as “Outstanding”; both people within this organization, Managers/Supervisors and Top Leadership in this Organization, and In viewing my own role obtained the means of (4.34, 4.35, and 4.42) and described as “Outstanding”; For me, personally in this organizationdescribed as “Very Satisfactory” with the mean of (4.20).From the data, it can be gleaned that there was an “Outstanding” Servant Leadership among SUCs Presidents in Panay Island. This meant that the SUCs Presidentthey lead, develop employees to bring out the best in them, coach others and encourage their self expression, good listening skills, stewardship and a commitment to facilitate personal growth in all who work with them and listen well to build a sense of community and joint ownership and they seek to make sure that other people’s highest-priority needs are being served, they are the catalyst to transform their followers to grow healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, and more likely themselves to become servants. The data under this Servant leadership among SUC Presidents in Panay Island conforms in the study made [8]. Leader builds an environment of trust, he or she is better able to bring about change to enhance effort or boost performance. Further discuss by [4], organizations is only sustainable when they serve human needs leaders are people-oriented and focused on the needs of those around them. The study of Russel [18] also supports the data and item of the value human equality to enhance the personal development and professional contributions of all organizational members. Ultimately, this formula should be effective in most types of organizations.

Table 1: Level of Servant Leadership among the SUC in Panay Island

Category Mean Description
People Within the Organization 4.34 Outstanding
Managers/Supervisors and Top Leadership in the Organization 4.35 Outstanding
Presidents views in their personal role 4.42 Outstanding
Presidents personal views within the organization 4.20 Very Satisfactory
Component Average 4.33 Outstanding

Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUC’s Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production

The Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUCs Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production in Panay Island is presented in the succeeding table (5) with the mean and corresponding description for each item. The Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUCs Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production among the SUCs in Panay Island obtained an overall means of (4.36) which is described as “Very Excellent”; both Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production obtained the means of (4.36, 4.37, 4.36, and 4.37)respectively are describe as “Very Excellent”. [3] noted that the reforms were meant to be systemic, guided by designs that explicitly or implicitly acknowledge a system, and evaluates the utility of the designs in generating information to support large-scale systemic changes in education. Furthermore, research efforts on reforms have been largely non-systemic in design and have thereby failed to adequately help individual schools, school systems, and state wide systems to develop in directions that are consistent with the mission of the reform movement.

York-Barr & Duke [22] cited that educational improvement at the level of instruction “necessarily involves leadership by teachers in classrooms and with peers.” In addition, school has expanded to include roles ranging “from assisting with the management of schools to evaluating educational initiatives and facilitating professional learning communities.” With this expansion, the hope for students today is continuous improvement of teaching and learning in all schools resulting in increased achievement.

Hallinger and Heck [7] explained the impact of shared leadership on school improvement, and even fewer have studied effects on student learning. The effects of collaborative leadership on school improvement and student learning achievement significantly direct the change in the schools’ academic capacity and indirect effects on rates of growth in student learning achievement. In addition, the study identified three different growth trajectories among schools, each characterized by variations in associated school improvement processes.

According to White [21] a good mentor was described as someone who possesses appropriate professional attributes, knowledge, good communication skills and the motivation to teach and support students [5]. The key elements of the role were teaching, support and assessment of the students’ performance in the practice area. Davies et al. found that mentors experience conflict between the competing demands of providing patient care and fulfilling their mentor role. However, having a mentor meant that learning was more likely to be planned and meaningful, whereas students lacking a mentor, felt they were `hanging about’ or `tagging along’ with little purpose to their learning. Consequently the presence of a mentor in the practice area was an important influence being a student.

Table 2: Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUC’s Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production

Items Mean Description
Instruction 4.36 Very Excellent
Research 4.37 Very Excellent
Extension 4.36 Very Excellent
Production 4.37 Very Excellent
Component Average 4.36 Very Excellent

Correlation Result between Reform Initiative and Servant Leadership

The level of servant leadership is not significantly related to the reform initiatives of the SUCs President in Panay Island. Pearson’s r coefficient is equal to -0.500, p = 0.499*. This indicates that reform initiative is negatively correlated to servant leadership.

Table 3: Correlation Result between Reform Initiative and Servant Leadership

Variables Pearson r p = value
Reform Initiative -.500 .499*
Servant Leadership

*Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The Relationship between the Servant leadership and reform initiatives of the SUC Presidents in terms of: Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production

A significant and a positive relationship exists between servant leadership and instruction, r = -0.429, p = 0.000; servant leadership and research, r = -0.481, p = 0.000; servant leadership and extension, r = -0.435, p = 0.000; servant leadership and production, r = -0.481, p = 0.000.

Table 4: Correlation Matrix of Servant Leadership, Instruction, Research, Extension and Production

Variables Pearson r p = value
Servant Leadership -0.429 .000*
Instruction
Servant Leadership -0.481 .000*
Research
Servant Leadership -.435 .000*
Extension
Servant Leadership -0.481 .000*
Production

Findings

  • The level of servant leadership among the SUC in Panay Island which described as “Outstanding”; both people within this organization, Managers/Supervisors and Top Leadership in this Organization, and In viewing my own role; and For me, personally in this organizationdescribed as “Very Satisfactory”.
  • The Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUCs Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production among the SUCs in Panay Island which is described as “Very Excellent”.
  • The level of servant leadership is not significantly related to the reform initiatives of the SUCs President in Panay Island.
  • A significant and positive relationship exists between instruction, research, extension, and production.

Conclusion

An outstanding level of servant leadership prevailed among SUC’s President. It manifest that the SUC’s President understood the vigor’s that goes with the title and are intrinsically motivated to perform the task assigned. Having understood the risk attached to their job, they are conversant of the functions of every individual via the organizational chart and adhere to the chain of command at the same time aware of the appropriate time when to cede authority to their academic and non-academic heads and supervisors. It must be emphasized to their heads and supervisors the leader’s role in identifying and following a clear structure so that overlapping of functions is eliminated thereby responsibility coupled with accountability is facilitated though delegation of power. Also rewards could be set for employee’s cogent role in following the chain of command.The extent of reform initiatives in instructions is very excellent. These findings can be attributed to the fast that qualified and willing faculty members are rewarded to pursue post graduate program in order to equip them with enough knowledge and skills and be adoptable to a technology driven learning environment and be able to give excellent service to student/clients.

Those who are motivated to teach can reach out to slow paced learners and institute remedial measures for maximum learning outcomes such being, the teachers are even willing to teach beyond their assigned faculty load even without just remunerations.Being inspired by their President, teachers are able to understand the nature of their jobs which likewise provide them an opportunity for self-esteem and self-actualization.

Extent of Reform Initiatives in Research. SUCs Presidents as leaders must motivate encourage all faculty members to conduct researches. Published research can be a source of reference not only for other SUC’s but other NGO’s as well which will being honor and prestige plus financial package to the university. The job of SUC Presidents is to allocate funds for researches and pave the way for the outstanding performance and global competence of faculty researches and the SUC’s as well.

Extent of Reform Initiative in Extension. Extension being one of the reform initiatives of SUC’s President must be pursued in order to help underprivileged community people improve their economic conditions. The President must fully identify the dearth community to conduct extension , establish linkages with NGO’ and other government agencies in order to economize and increase funding allocation of varied extension project being President, be may ask for additional funding allocations to augment the regular releases from Department of Budget Management or (DBM) through submission of a justified program of works.

He may also encourage talented and skillful faculty members to pursue extension activities through payment of honoraria on service rendered after their regular faculty load or even a compensatory time off (CTO) for overtime service.The role of SUC’s President is to encourage the involvement of community people as a good leader and lead them to participate in the extension programs to generate additional income for family expenditures.

Extent if Reform Initiatives in Production is “Very Excellent”. There is a cogent need for President to design a project for mass production to augment the income from other sources of SUC’s for the reason that the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) has reduced fund allocations for the reason that they are expected to be self reliant. The Presidents is tasked to inculcate in the hearts and minds of faculty members a spirits of entrepreneurship, which they are not only teachers but businessman as well.

A motivated and dedicated President is the one who knows the capabilities of his faculty and lead them to a satisfying but productive lives too.Level of Servant Leadership is significant related to Reform Initiatives. This is based on the notion that only outstanding level of servant leadership can institute reform initiatives.Reform Initiatives cannot be undertaken by those leaders who do not understand their job assignment only very excellent level of servant leaders who are intrinsically motivated understand the value of their organization and what is expected of them such that they perform their task to the best of their abilities without looking forward for re-appointment to a second term of office.Dedicated servant leaders are always on top such being so, they always look after the welfare of their staff by providing a wholesome work environment.They must establish rapport with each and every employee and gain their trust along the way.

Having gained their trust, the President can lead them to perform beyond the call of duty at a minimal compensation or none at all.The good leader is able to encourage the personnel to perform their best by “walks the talk” formula, his not only lead instruction but in actual job execution to his employees and produce globally competitive learners.Servant Leadership has negative relationship with instruction, Research, Extension, and Production. This may be due to the fact that the leadership approach may or may not be needed in order to pursue the four (4) reform initiatives. These initiatives can be only undertaken by the middle managers in coordination only or with the knowledge of leaders without necessarily doing it themselves. Chain of command to these managers in order that delegated power, responsibility with accountability is delineated to avoid over lapping of functions.

Overlapping of functions due to wrong interpretation of the chain of command by employees may result to losses and negative return of investment.All the four reform initiatives have positive relationship with each one since all of them shall be undertaken by SUC’s President in order to realize its vision, mission, goal and objectives.Without the four, it is near to impossible that SUC’s will prosper. The most is that there will be a decrease of enrolment of students which will translate to a few incomes and pave the way for its closure from CHED.

Recommendation

For Servant Leadership

  • Appropriate leadership capabilities are a must for the university system so they will be able to translate them into action in the realization of the system’s Mission, Vision, Goals, and Objectives.
  • Leaders are tasked to inculcate commitment and honesty in the system and in the mind of employees so that personnel can be depend upon for progressive educational organization capable employees are assets to the university as they serve as window in allowing student enrolees.
  • This may be attained only if leaders are aware of the basic need of their employees and grant reward if the need arises both in compensation and promotion. Plaques of appreciation and/or certificates of commendation suffice and only rewarded to the worthy ones however, the underperforming ones may likewise he awarded by a mere of “thank you” or a “pot in the bock” and let them feel their importance in the attainment of university goals and objectives. Leaders must lead by example and must “walk the talk”.
  • They should be able to encourage employees to rise to excellence and be realistic in recognizing their performance thru appropriate and objective ratings without personnel bias which sometimes is demoralizing on the employee.
  • The leader must pave the way for mutual trust and confidence in them so that habitual tardiness and absenteeism is minimizing which is a great menace to the system as well as low productive output.
  • An ideal grievance committee must be installed by leader to cater to petty quarrels among personnel, so that mediation is enhanced and problems can be mediated and conciliated at the lower level supervise to promote harmony and whole some work environment.

For Reform Initiatives

Research

  • Researcher must be conducted but workers shall play a vital role by providing fund allocation thereto.
  • Identify all the faculty members who are capability to do the research and motivate thou not only for self fulfilment but for a global competence of the system.
  • Leaders who are research oriented are tasked to instil in the heart and minds of faculty on the cogent need of system to do research. Employee must be made to understand the merits to be earned especially of a published research which is profitable than the regular salary they earn while teaching.

Instruction

  • It is the meat of the university system. Such being faculty members must be allowed to enhance the teaching skills.
  • Install a comprehensive faculty development program so that the welling and capable ones may pursue post doctoral studies for capability building. Encourage all of them if funds are warrant that they must go back to the university.
  • Performance evaluation system which is free of personnel biases is empathy needed to be pursued so that performance will be motivated to do their best always.
  • Incentive and rewards system is a must if the university is looking forward for the clearance in turnover rate and resignation of outstanding faculty.
  • Promotion of qualified personnel is needed to inspire them to do beyond the call of duty for life-long learners.Install state of the art classroom and laboratory facilities in to be competitive in a technology driven environment and attain global competence.

Extension and Production

  • Extension and Production as reform initiatives must be pursued religiously. Leaders need t to translate their skills into action through extension projects and production design.
  • As leaders, they must inspire the community people to cooperate and learn how to improve their standard of living. On man capable and skillful faculty members to do the task. Reward their program implementers in addition to payment of honoraria and other incentives when working overtime.
  • Lastly, properly identified areas of concern to be tapped in order that follow-up of work accomplishment is easily done. Provide ample fund allocation through linkages with NGO’s and other government agencies so that the program and projects are well-aligned.