Keywords

Methods, Teaching Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health, Public Secondary Schools

Introduction

In the educational process the three important factors are: the learner, the teacher and the subject matter. The subject matter is the lesson to be taught, the student being the recipient of the message is a vital factor while the key factor is the teacher. Therefore, the key to the educational process lies in the hands of the teacher. High School teachers teach various subjects, the core subjects which are Math, English and the Sciences and the skills subjects Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and Music, Arts Physical Education and Health (MAPEH).

One of the most challenging subjects that a secondary school teacher instructs is, MAPEH. Besides having four components, it really does focus on the holistic development of the child. From discovering future athletes, dancers, actors and actresses, doctors and nurses, the teacher also has to discover future singers and musicians. Hence, these teachers have to perform multifarious functions to bring out the best among the students.

However, the weakness of most if not all MAPEH teachers is the Music. Whether in the secondary or in the tertiary level there is shortage of musician teachers who are supposed to give strong foundation in music to their students. This is very evident in the town of Mexico, Pampanga. Music has its own language and needs to be treated differently from the other components of MAPEH. It is not merely a theoretical subject, but focuses mainly on the psychomotor and appreciative side of a learner. If the teachers will only be teaching the theories, his endeavor will be futile. The teachers must be well equipped with the basic skills of the subject taught.

In her published article, Borromeo (2008) stated that the inclusion of the subject music is premised aesthetic (musical), and utilitarian (extra musical) contributions to general on its education and the national culture. It is an all-encompassing subject, the musical premise deals with the technicalities of the subject, specifically its rudiments. And these are the melody, harmony, rhythm, texture and timbre. The utilitarian premise is the skills of the students. Whether these skills are natural or trained the teachers should be keen in spotting these abilities possessed by the students. And it is the duty of the teacher to enhance these skills.

Simply put one cannot give what one do not have. One cannot blame the teachers for they were not trained properly during their undergraduate years. Most of the MAPEH majors lack the basic knowledge and skills in teaching the subject appropriately. It makes the teachers inept in handling the subject, and it is up to them to accept this as a challenge to continuously strive to grow professionally. Kellough (2001) in the other hand pointed out that one characteristic of a competent teacher is the teacher constantly striving to further develop a repertoire of teaching methodologies. The traditional way of teaching is definitely obsolete and the new generation of learners require more than the mundane strategy of imparting knowledge. Instructional methodologies form a continuum from a direct to indirect teaching. On one end, there is direct instruction which is teacher-centered. Teachercentered instruction believes that learning is a result of direct transmission of knowledge from teacher to student. On the other hand, indirect-instruction is student-centered. Student-centered instruction believes that learning is a result of a student’s ability to understand and process information.

Music education requires rapport from both the teacher and the learner there should be a strong bond to aid in the discovery of talents and harnessing these. According to Questia (2009), in the field of education, the experiences of field study is unique. That uniqueness is due in particular to the relationship you form with the cooperating teacher, which is truly an apprenticeship one. It is the only time in a teaching career that one is an apprentice under the close guidance of an experienced mentor .The relationship of an apprentice to an experienced cooperating teacher is the same with a high school teacher to a secondary student. Where closed guidance and learned methodologies are needed in the proper grooming of the student’s mind. If a teacher fails to recognize these potentials and choose not to give it due attention that teacher is corrupting the child of what is rightfully his.

According to Cruz (2005), there is a need to satisfy and improve the teaching practices or competencies of MAPEH teachers so that the teachers themselves are able to interact better with the students. In that way the goal of music teaching will be achieved. As proven through time, many successful musicians cannot even read or write music, most of them rejected by the academe. And yet they managed to produce and compose songs which has adamantly remained in the psyche of the listener and became the soundtracks of their lives. Street musicians, club singers people who were randomly discovered by providential producers and were taught the basics, already carry the mystical seeds of music and the basic ideas that was given to them becomes the tools in music making. Their unofficial teachers became the source of inspiration for them. It is thwarting on our part as members of the educational institution to fail to see what these people saw. Many seminars have been facilitated and sponsored by the division of Pampanga, to eradicate this problem but every attempt was always fruitless. Therefore, this problem continues to occur and linger hence producing more unfitted music teachers every year. The poor teacher performance is also associated with the lack of resources. According to the 2008 study, the availability of instructional materials specifically updated references was the most frequent concern aside from lack of course syllabi (http.unesdoc.unesco.org) which is very evident in Music. Furthermore, the reference books and materials used are outdated. Based from the foregoing, the researcher found it relevant to explore the various methods used by the MAPEH teachers in the public secondary schools of Mexico, Pampanga.

Framework

The study focused on the methods used by the MAPEH teachers in the Secondary schools of Mexico, Pampanga. The schematic diagram in shows the hypothesized relationships among the key variables: independent variables (presumed cause), dependent variables (presumed effect), and intervening variables (other variables that influence the effect of the independent variables). INPUT pertains to the methods used by the teachers towards teaching music, the assessment of these methods, problems encountered by the teachers. PROCESS refers to the data gathering procedures, documentary analysis and class observations. procedure through the conduct of survey-questionnaires, unstructured interviews the intervening key which is the development of a proposed music teaching program, which will be achieved through data gathering tools such as the surveyquestionnaire, unstructured interviews and the documentary analysis, raw achievement records and observation. OUTPUT refers to the expected outcome of the study which is the preparation of a proposed teaching music program.

Schematic Diagram of the Study

Statement of the problem

The study intended to determine the various methods in teaching music among the Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health Teachers in the Public Schools of Mexico Pampanga, academic year 2014-2015.

Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the teacher-respondents in terms of:

  • Age;
  • Gender;
  • Civil Status;
  • Educational Qualifications;
  • Length of Service; and
  • Relevant Conferences/Seminars/training Attended?

2.How do the respondents assess the effectiveness of the methods used in teaching music?

3.Is there a significant difference between the teacher and student respondents’ assessments among the methods used in teaching music?

4.What are the problems encountered by the respondents in using the methods?

5.Based from the finding what solutions can be offered?

Materials and Methods

Research Design

To attain the purpose of the study, the researcher used the descriptive survey type of research. Ariola (2006) pointed out that descriptive survey of research is usually used by graduate and under graduate students when they attempt to analyze, interpret and report the present state of their subject matter and problem. This method of investigation involves the collection of data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. It aims to describe the nature of situation, as it exists at the time of the study and explore the causes of the particular phenomena. Garcia and Regamit (2010) confirmed that descriptive research seeks to describe systematically, factually, accurately and objectively a situation, problem or phenomenon. It seeks to describe” what is”. Calmorin (2010) pointed out that descriptive method of study focuses at the present situation (what is) the purpose to find new truth. Descriptive research is valuable in: (1) providing facts in which scientific judgment may be based; (2) provide essential knowledge about the nature of objects and person; and (3) for closer observations into three practices, behavior, methods and procedures. The study aimed to identify the methods used by the music teachers of Mexico, Pampanga, it also explores the problems and challenges encountered by the respondents everyday as well as the corresponding solutions were given due account which served as a basis for a Proposed Music Teaching Program (PMTP)

Locale of the study

As shown in Table 1, the respondents of the study were the 480 fourth year students of San Juan High School and 33 MAPEH teachers teaching in Mexico, Pampanga

Table 1

Distribution of the Population of the Respondents

Respondents Total
Student Respondents 480
Teacher Respondents 33
Total Number of Respondents 513

Instrumental Analysis

To collect the data essential to the realization of this study, a set of data gathering tools was used. The researcher utilized the following data gathering instruments: (1) questionnaire (2) unstructured interviews (3) observation; and documentary materials.

Survey Questionnaire

A survey questionnaire was adopted to obtain data for the assessment of the methods used in Teaching Music in the host school. The questionnaire on the approaches used by Music teachers were divided in two parts: Part I highlighted the profile of the teacher respondents, from the basic questions to years in service in teaching the subject, length of service to the relevant seminars attended by Music teachers. Part II. A. pertained to the assessment of teaching methods. It draws out the different teaching methodologies used by the respondents and a checklist of their affectivity to the students. Part II. B. Contained questions pertaining to the students assessments of the reaching methods used by their MAPEH teachers. The administration of the survey questionnaire was conducted during free periods, lunch breaks and after class hours. The researcher took almost a month in gathering the required data.

Unstructured Interview

Unstructured interview with the MAPEH teachers was conducted by the researcher. The interview begins with a question “What does music means to your life?” And “How do you convey Musical information to you students?” Then, a series of questions were followed depending on the respondent’s answers.

Observation

The researcher conducted observations during MAPEH classes. It was noted that proper coordination with the key officials of the respondent schools was secured. Any significant voice enunciation and behavioral gestures were recorded so as to further substantiate and enrich the primary data collected.

Documentary Analysis

The researcher referred to various documentary materials to supplement the finding of the study.

Data analysis

The data gathered through the questionnaire were classified, organized, tallied and tabulated. These were treated with the use of frequency distribution and weighted mean. The data to answer specific problems were treated as follows:

1. In determining the profile of the teacher-respondents in terms of age, gender, civil status, educational qualifications, length of service and relevant conferences/seminars attended, frequency distribution and percentage was used

To compute the percentage, the formula used was

P = n/N x 100

Where: P = percentage

n = number of cases

N = total number of respondents

2. In assessing the effectiveness of the methods used by the MAPEH Teachers, norms of interpretation and weighted mean was used:

Descriptive Rating Weight Point Scale
Very Much Effective 5 4.21 – 5.00
Much Effective 4 3.41 – 4.20
Moderately Effective 3 2.61 – 3.40
Fairly Effective 2 1.81 – 2.60
Not Effective 1 1.00 – 1.80

To be able to interpret the computed mean, the following descriptive ratings were used:

Descriptive Rating Point Scale
Very Much Effective (VME) 4.21 – 5.00
Much Effective (ME) 3.41 – 4.20
Moderately Effective (MDE) 2.61 – 3.40
Fairly Effective (FE) 1.81 – 2.60
Not Effective (NE) 1.00 – 1.80

3. In assessing the seriousness of the problems encountered by the Music Teacher, norms of interpretation and weighted mean was used:

Descriptive Rating Weight Point Scale
Very Serious Problem 5 4.21 – 5.00
Serious Problem 4 3.41 – 4.20
Moderately a Problem 3 2.61 – 3.40
Minimal Problem 2 1.81 – 2.60
Not a Problem 1 1.00 – 1.80

4.In assessing how much the respondents agree to the proposed solutions the following scale was used:

Descriptive Rating Weight Point Scale
Strongly Agree 5 4.21 – 5.00
Agree 4 3.61 – 4.20
Moderately Agree 3 2.41 – 3.60
Disagree 2 1.81 – 2.40
Strongly Disagree 1 1.00 – 1.80

5.In the computation of weighted mean, the formula used was:

WM = ΣWV

N

Where: WM = total of the products weighted multiplied by their corresponding frequency

N = the number of rates or total frequency

ΣWV = sum of the weighted value

6.In testing the null hypothesis, t-test for independent sample was used. The following formula was used:

Where: x1 = mean of sample 1

x2 = mean of sample 2

n1 = sample sizes in sample 1

n2 = samples sizes in sample 2

s1 = variance of sample 1

s2 = variance of sample 2

Decision Rule: Reject Ho if /t/ ≥ /t tabular/

Results and Discussion

Profile of the Teacher Respondents

Among the thirty three teacher respondents half of them are 20 to 25 years old, indicating that majority of the MAPEH teachers are young, three (3) of them are 26 to30 years old, seven (7) are 31-36 years old, three (3) are from the ages 37-40 years old, three (3) are 41 to 46 years old and two (2) are from the ages 46 to 50 years old. With regards to the gender ten (10) of the respondents were male and twenty three (23) are female. Eighteen (18) of the respondents are single and twenty three (23), of them are married. In the educational qualifications six (6) of them has master’s unit, 25 are graduates of bachelor’s degree with a major in MAPEH, and one respondent is a P.E major. In the length of service twenty one (21) teachers are novice teachers with five years and below in the service. Six (6) of them has been teaching for 6-10 years, four (4) of them have been in public service for 11-15 years, one (1) teacher has been teaching for 16-20 years, curiously enough though, none has been teaching 21-25 years, but one (1) has been teaching for more than 26 year. When it comes to the relevant trainings, seminars and conferences attended, thirty (30) of the respondents attended the division level k-12 seminar for the grades 7 to 9, and three (3) respondents did not attend any music seminar for the last three years.

Assessment of the Teaching Methodologies According to the Teacher-Respondents

The average weighted mean for the assessment of teaching methodologies is 3.14, with a descriptive method much effective. The first item in the Deductive method got a weighted mean of 4.15, 4.09 for the second item, 4.12 for the third and 3.39 for the last item. In the demonstration method, the weighted mean are as follows, for the first item a weighted mean of 3.03 was computed, 3.18 for the second item and 3.82 for the last item. On the drill/practice method, the results are as follows 3.95 for the first item and 2.94 for the last item. For the expository method, the computed weighted mean are as follows for the first item it is 3.42, 3.55 for the second item and4.18 for the last. The computation for the weighted mean in the inductive method is as follows 3.88 for the first item, 4.21 for the second and 3.00 for the last. The result for the lecture or discussion method is 4.21 for the first item and 3.67 for the last. And finally for the last method mastery, the result of the computation is as follows;4.21 for the first item,3.91 for the second,4.30 for the third, 4.00 for the fourth item and 4.36 for the last item.

Assessment of the Teaching Methodologies According to the Fourth Year Students

The findings on the students’ assessment of the teaching methods being used by the music teachers are as follows; in the inductive method the first item had a weighted mean of 4.62, the second item got a weighted mean of 4.38, the third item gained a 4.11 weighted mean and the last item got a weighted mean of 4.35. In the Demonstration Method the weighted mean are as follow; 4.18 for the first item, 4.42 for the second and 4.28 for the last. In the drill or practice method the weighted mean is as follows; 4.30 for the first item, and 4.38 for the last item. In the expository Method the weighted mean are as follows 4.46 on the first item, 4.46 for the second and 4.57 for the last. The inductive method got a weighted mean of 4.42 for the first item, 4.47 for the second and 4.44 for the last. In the integrative method the following were computed 4.32 for the first item, 4.50 for the second and 4.56 for the last. In the lecture or discussion method the following weighted mean were found 4.50 for the first item and 4.62 for the last. And on the last method, the mastery, the weighted mean that were computed are as follows 4.47 for the first method, 4.46 for the second, 4.56 for the third, 4.48 for the fourth and the last item got a weighted mean of 4.56. The average weighted mean of all these is 4.43.

Problems Encountered by the Respondents

The problems encountered by the respondents were rated as “Serious Problem”. In the teacher factor are as follows: there is deficiency in the interest of teaching the subject, the rudiments of music are frequently not taught in class, the lessons are deemed inappropriate and trifling, the teachers abhor singing in the class, does not play any musical instrument, can teach other components of MAPEH but not music, do not appreciate and recognize the composers and skips most of the lessons.

Under the descriptive rating “serious problem” of the student factor the results were as follows; the students’ tediousness in the subject, the indifference of the students in the subject, the insufficiency of the students’ talents, that is to say the students cannot sing well and a handful of individuals play any musical instruments, majority of the students excel in other subject but not in music, the unhelpfulness of the students for the duration of the class and the students do not partake during the “listening” activities.

In the institutional factor, under the “very serious problem” descriptive rating the following were discovered; the results are: the inadequacy of the musical instructional equipment and supplies and the limited amenities of the school.

Proposed Remedies to the Problems Encountered

The proposed solutions to the problems encountered by the Music teachers that were on the descriptive rating as “Strongly Agree”, were as follows: the teachers should provide more games and activities in the class, make the lesson interactive than monotonous. The students should be given the chance to maneuver musical instruments and should be encouraged to demonstrate their talents and should be supported to join music clubs in the school. The department should provide more music seminars, must organize more music activity and should purchase musical instruments to be used in the class.

Conclusions

Based from the summary of the findings, the researcher came out with the following generalizations:

  • According to the profile of the teacherrespondents majority are young and new to the system, female teachers outnumber the male and that there are very few music training programs organized by the Division of Pampanga.
  • The methods used by the MAPEH teachers were described as “much effective”.
  • There is a significant difference in the assessment of the student and teacherrespondent in assessing the methods used in teaching music.
  • Lack of support and discrimination from the institution leads to the fluctuation of interest towards the subject.
  • There is a great need to re-assess the role of music in the curriculum and its role in the students’ development.

Recommendations

Based from the findings of the study and the above stated conclusions, the researcher offers the following recommendations:

  • Consistent music trainings, programs and seminars should be provided by the department to update the teachers to the latest trends in music teaching
  • Peer-Teaching and insets about music, within the MAPEH department is highly recommended.
  • The methods of the teachers must supplement the musical needs of the students.
  • During intramurals a musical awareness program or a “music week” can be added to give students a chance to demonstrate their talents in music.
  • An enthusiastic music teacher and a talented student are keys in re-assessing the role of music in a students’ development.