Keywords

Television Advertisements; Radio Advertisements; Outdoor Advertisements; Internet Advertisements; Word of Mouth; Print Ads; Young People; Alcoholism

Introduction

The density of alcohol advertising on the drinking behavior of young people is a material of much question, mostly focused on the difficulty of whether advertising upsurges consumption and indefinite drinking of young people. The anxiety about the prospective effects that media portrayals of drinking, alcohol product placements, and alcohol advertising may have on alcohol consumption and problems among young people.

Although the alcohol commerce preserves that its advertising intentions merely to intensify market share and not to embolden underage persons to drink, research advocates then. Alcohol advertisements tremendously link drinking of alcohol with characteristics particularly important to youth, such as esteem, companionship, sex appeal, fun and sex appeal.

The alcohol industry used animation and animal charismas to intrigue young viewers to alcohol in the 1990s, with frogs, lizards and dogs, which were significantly admired by youth. In 1996, for example, the Budweiser Frogs were further recognizable to children aged 9-11 as to Power Rangers, Tony the Tiger, or Smokey the Bear.

Several alcohol advertisements use supplementary techniques concerned toward youth, such as themes of mutiny and use of teenage hilarity. A study of alcohol advertising in South Dakota, for example, initiates those publicities in 6th grade foreseen future intent to use alcohol.

It is expressive that youth report alcohol ads as their preferences, specifically when so many different products participate in attainment of their attention. These captivating advertisements developed as new lecturers of youth. One study establishes, in point, that 8-12 year olds could name more varieties of beer than they could U.S. presidents. In marketplaces across the US, augmented alcohol advertising coverage and dollars paid out on these ads on television increased the consumption of fermented beverages among youth and young adults. It is not astounding that juvenile drinkers consume roughly 25 percent of all liquor in the United States. Low-income and marginal groups as targets African-American youth frequently have increased exposure to alcohol ads as associated to the youth population as a whole. In 2004, African-American youth observed 34% more magazine alcohol advertisements per capita than adolescence in general and heard 15% more radio advertisements. Further, they were also seriously exposed to alcohol ads on the top 15 greatly watched television shows watched by African-American spectators. It look as if that this increased exposure, as a minimum through television, conceivably due in part by the viewing patterns of African-American youth rather than essentially from targeted promotion by the alcohol industry.

In addition to print media coverage, researchers have learned that alcohol advertising is excessively concentrated in low-income minority localities. One study found that minority localities in Chicago have on typical seven times the number of billboards promoting alcohol as does Caucasian neighborhoods. And a 2009 study in Chicago demonstrated that minority attending a school with 20% or further Hispanic students were exposed to 6.5 times more outdoor alcohol ads than students attending schools with less than 20% Hispanic students. In a 2008 study, alcohol billboards in Atlanta, Georgia were more dominant in neighborhoods that were 50% or more African-American.

Such awareness of alcohol advertising and accessibility likely renders into increased hitches associated with alcohol use in these populations, as well as increased objectives among exposed youth to drink alcohol.

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents literature before and studies that has bearing to this study. There is sufficient indication from investigational, economic, survey, longitudinal and methodical review studies to determine that the degree of youth alcohol advertising publicity is toughly and directly associated with intents to drink, age of drinking inception, pervasiveness of drinking, and the quantity consumed. A prospective study piloted by the University of Southern California presented that a one standard deviation upsurge in viewing television programs having alcohol advertisements in seventh grade was accompanying with an excess jeopardy of beer use (44%), wine/liquor use (34%), and 3-drink occurrences (26%) in eighth grade.

In another large longitudinal study published in 2011 of individuals 15 to 26 years of age found a direct correlation between the amount of exposure to alcohol advertising on billboards, radio, television, and newspapers with higher levels of drinking and a steeper increase in drinking over time.

Conceptual Framework

A Conceptual Framework is a theoretical structure of assumptions, principles, and rules that holds together the ideas comprising a broad concept. And with this impression considering as a plan for the study will give the necessary responses on the effect of alcohol advertisements to young people leading to consumption.

Figure 1

Research Methodology

The materials in this chapter are how the study is conceived in terms of the type of philosophy contributed. Wherein majority of business studies can be classified as positivist because the researcher intends to be objective by being separate from the research and facts serve as the main points of focus.

Research Design

Mix-Method Design

Mixed methods research represents more of a system to investigative research problem than a methodology. Mixed method is characterized by a focus on research problems that require, 1) an examination of real-life contextual understandings, multi-level viewpoints, and cultural effects; 2) a deliberate application of severe quantitative research measuring level and frequency of theories and rigorous qualitative study discovering the implication and understanding of the paradigms; and, 3) an dispassionate of depiction on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques to formulate a holistic interpretive framework for generating possible solutions or new understandings of the problem.

The researcher decided to use mix-method design for the study, this method will be helpful in giving a better understanding of the research problem. The outcome of the designed questionnaire that will be used over the researchers study will be used for further analysis.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were the first year to fourth year students of Virgen Delas Flores High School. Their replies were the needed facts that supported fund the researchers need.

Sampling Technique

The sampling technique used was Convenience Sampling, a statistical technique of drawing demonstrative data by choosing people for the reason of the ease of their volunteering or selecting units because of their convenience or easy access. The compensations of this type of sampling are the obtainability and the swiftness with which data can be obtained. The disadvantages are the hazard that the sample might not embody the population as a whole, and it might be subjective by volunteers.

Data Gathering Instrument

The data gathering that will be used were discussed to have a clearer idea on the different facts and analysis that were gathered through the use of these instruments. These tools were used for the collection of data for this study. The following instruments were also used to obtain descriptive information.

Interview: This is a standard part in conducting a study and widely used method in gathering data about the study being directed. The proponent asked questions to gain factual information in order to identify problems and to be able to determine solutions.

Observation: This practice enables the proponent to obtain additional knowledge somewhat more objectively than conducting personal interviews. One of the tools that the researcher is used direct observation which considered being the most direct means of gathering data from a certain activity or behavior.

Questionnaire: This is a survey instrument in conducting measurements from the identified participants. The proponent asked them to complete the forms designed to gather data in relation to the study. This survey questionnaire was distributed to gain evaluation of the proposed study if the effects of alcohol beverage advertisements do have an impact to young viewers resulting in its consumption.

Preparation of the Instrument

The instrument prepared for the collection of information is made through the basis of the statement of the problem. Ensuring the estimated value that can be obtained is a good representation of the true value of the population. It is necessary to develop a sampling plan. The sampling plan is clearly written document that contains precise details that a researcher used to decide the sample size, the locations from which the sample should be selected, the method used to collect the sample, and the method used to preserve them prior to analysis.

Validation of the Instrument

The questionnaire the researcher prepared was subjected for validation of our research adviser and the proponent did some adjustments of the survey questions.

Data Gathering Procedure

The instrument used in the form of survey forms was handled out to the target respondents. The imminent results were studied and tallied. The interview that was conducted with the respondents was gathered for data as well. And observation became the basis for the interpretation of data gathering through surveys.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The statistical tools were determined the effectiveness of the proposed utility. The following statistical tools were used in the analysis and interpretation of data.

Percentage Distribution: This was used to show the distribution of the respondents’ demographic profiles.

P=100*f/N

Where: i. P = Percentage, ii. f = Frequency, iii. N = Number of Respondents

Weighted Mean: This was used to determine the average rating for each criterion in the evaluation.

Where: i. = Weighted Item, ii. Wi = Weight of ith item X, iii. Xi = Value of the ith item X

Likert Scale: The Likert Scale is usually used scale in quantitative research.

  1. It is intended to determine the judgment or attitude of a topic.
  2. It comprises a number of accounts with a scale after each proclamation.

The original form of the scale involves 5 response categories, and each response category was consigned a value.

Typically, the most undesirable response is given a numerical value of 1, while the most confident response has a numerical value of 5.

Table 1: Five point Likert scale

Mean Verbal interpretation
4.51-5.00 Strongly Agree
3.51-4.50 Agree
2.51-3.50 Neutral
1.51-2.50 Disagree
1.00-1.50 Strongly Disagree

ANOVA Test: The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to define whether there are any significant differences amongst the means of three or more sovereign (unrelated) groups. This guide will deliver a brief outline to the one-way ANOVA, as well as the expectations of the test and when you ought to use this test.

The one-way ANOVA relates the means between the groups you are concerned in and concludes whether any of those means are significantly different as of each other. In detail, it tests the null hypothesis:

Ho:μ1= μ2= μ3= ⋯ μk

Where µ = group mean and k = number of groups. If, conversely, the one-way ANOVA returns a significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (HA), which is that there are at least 2 group means that are significantly different from each other.

Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data

This chapter presents and describes the data followed by a discussion of the research findings. The findings relate to the research questions that guided the study. Data were investigated to identify, designate and sightsee the correlation of the forms of advertising and how these forms of advertisement becomes the medium of alcohol with orientation to the consumption of alcohol by young individuals. And to determine the possibilities on minimizing young people consumption of alcohol.

Problem No. 1: What are the forms of advertisements on alcohol?

Table 2: Forms of Advertisements on Alcohol

Table 2: Forms of Advertisements on Alcohol

Note: Multiple Responses.

Legend: f = Frequency,% = Percentage

Table 1 presents the form of advertisements on alcohol.

As gleaned from the table, there are six forms of advertisements. Ranked one is “television” with 44 respondents or 73 percent. This is ranked one because the kids can easily avail of the media, considering that almost all households have televisions.

This is supported by Kathryn Doyle (2016) that exposures to alcohol advertising in other forms of media like magazines and television is related to alcohol consumption for teens.

Televisions as one of the source in advertisement have come up to be the most powerful window as far as accessibility/availability is concerned. Televisions turned out to be an effective medium in encouragement of product advertising, including alcoholic products. In irony, Total Ban of alcohol advertisements on film acquired the highest grand mean among the six prohibitions of alcohol advertisement.

It is followed by “internet” with 28 respondents or 47 percent. This is ranked two because of its availability, given that every young people practically owned a cellphone or other type of gadget that is used in linking to the internet. This is supported by Kathryn Doyle (2016) that alcohol ads on websites, and informal messaging, like seeing an alcohol-related pose on a friend’s Facebook page influences teen alcohol use.

As presented from table 1, “radio” is on the third rank having 25 respondents or 42 percent. This is ranked third because teens can also avail easily with this form of media.

Advocate by Dr. Gillian N. Penny and Sarah Armstrong Jones (2010) that advertisements are frequently the main sponsors of TV programs, radio stations, magazines, newspapers, concerts and films accompanying with fun, cool music, relaxation, friends and humors which come to be the source of influence to young people to learn about alcohol and likely encouragement for young people to drink.

It is trailed by “movies” ranked no. 4 with 14 respondents or 23 percentages. It is ranked 4 in line for the use of alcoholic drinks on films as props. This is supported by Dr. Gillian N. Penny and Sarah Armstrong Jones (2010) that exposure to cinema advertising was a negative predictor of frequency of getting drunk.

As manifested from table 1, the “word of mouth” is in rank five having 13 respondents or 22 percent. This is ranked five because word of mouth is boosting, particularly amongst peer groups. Uphold by Professor Barrie Gunter, Anders Hansen and Dr. Maria Touri (2010) that there was no proof that exposure to such alcohol advertising was as great an influence as the influence of parents and peer groups.

Lastly are “print ads” with only 11 respondents or 18 percent. This is the bottommost advertisement on alcohol because of government policy alterations in posting alcoholic drinks outdoor. This is supported by marketingzone.com (2013) that ads can be extremely relevant to the readers and not seen as annoying interruptions.

Problem No. 2: How does advertising influence young people to drink alcohol?

Table 3: Perception of the Respondents on the Influence of Advertisement on Alcohol

Table 3: Perception of the Respondents on the Influence of Advertisement on Alcohol

Legend: x = Weighted Mean,VI = Verbal Interpretation,SA = Strongly Agree,A = Agree, N = Neutral, D = Disagree, SD = Strongly Disagree

Table 2 exhibits the perception of the respondents.

As shown on table 2, there are six perceptions of the respondents. Ranked no. 1 is “TV advertising; it can highly influence young people, if they idolize the product endorser”. It has a weighted mean of 3.78, with a verbal interpretation of agree. It is ranked the utmost because idolizing an endorser of alcoholic drinks can be persuading to young people and leading them to drink.

It is trailed by “Peer groups” words of encouragement about alcohol have the rule of influencing young people” It gained a weighted mean of 3.71, with a verbal interpretation of agree. It ranked second since peer groups are most likely listened by young people when it comes to tantrum.

As presented from table 2, “Internet advertising can highly influence young people, if it is inserted in online games” comes third in rank. It takes a weighted mean of 3.5 with a verbal interpretation of agree, since young people currently enjoying online games.

It is followed by “Movies giving influence to young people, showing flicks where there’s a need to drink alcohol” with a weighted mean of 3.17 and a verbal interpretation of neutral. It is ranked fourth for the reason that covert advertising or advertisements of products specifically alcoholic drinks in movies are legally allowed.

As indicated from the table, ranked fifth is “Outdoor advertising seen far and wide has the effect of persuading young people to drinking alcohol” having a weighted mean of 3.14 with a verbal interpretation of neutral. It is in rank five for alcoholic drink advertisement is now much less to be seen in public.

Finally “Radio advertising, can highly influence young people, if advertisement themes highlight fun and friendship” is on the lowermost rank. It has gained a weighted mean of 2.94 with a verbal interpretation of neutral, since young people as of today do not listen in radio programs that much.

Problem No. 3: What recommendations can be offered by the respondents to minimize alcoholism among young people?

Table 4: Recommended Actions by the Respondents

Table 4: Recommended Actions by the Respondents

Legend:x = Weighted Mean,VI = Verbal Interpretation,SA = Strongly Agree,A = Agree,N = Neutral,D = Disagree,SD = Strongly Disagree

Table 3 displays the recommended actions by the respondents.

As manifested from table 3, among the six recommendations. The “Total ban of alcohol ads on films” is ranked no. 1, having an average mean of 3.50 with a verbal interpretation of agree. It is on uppermost rank because the proponents of the study would like to totally ban alcohol ads on film, concerning that even movie producers are concern with the effect of alcohol ads to young audiences.

It is followed by “Exclusion of alcohol ads on radio programs” equal with “Tough Law implementation about restrictions in alcohol acquisition” which equally has an average mean of 3.47 and a verbal interpretation of neutral. Both has gained a rank of 2.5 since the proponent wants to prohibit alcohol advertisement on radio programs and the law implementation in restricting alcohol purchase be materialized.

As gleaned from table 3, “Marginalization of alcohol ads on well-known web sites” is on rank no. 4 with a weighted mean of 3.45 and a verbal interpretation of neutral. It is ranked fourth for the reason that advertisements of alcoholic drinks on the internet as the proponents stately consider to limit the advertising on alcohol in this kind of media.

As shown from table 3, “Strong enactment of alcohol advertisements prohibition on TV” is ranked fifth having a weighted mean of 3.35 and a verbal interpretation of neutral. Given that alcohol advertising plays a big role as sponsors on television networks, the proponent of the study has a desire for the prohibition of alcohol advertisement on televisions.

Lastly is “Banishment of alcohol billboard advertising” has an average mean of 3.25 and a verbal interpretation of neutral. It is the bottommost recommendation by the proponents; as kids of today have less interest in listening to radio programs and nevertheless give attention towards trending technologies rather.

Problem No. 4: Is there a significant difference in age and commonly seen advertisement on alcohol?

Table 5: Significant Difference in Age and Commonly Seen Advertisement on Alcohol

Table 5: Significant Difference in Age and Commonly Seen Advertisement on Alcohol

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary of results, the conclusions drawn, and there approvals offered by the respondents. This study was to regulate the effect of advertising alcohol on young people. Questionnaires were ran out to gather required data to accomplish and outline the study.

Summary

This study aims to know the effects of advertising alcohol on young people.

Specifically, it seeks answer to the following problems:

  1. What are the forms of advertisements of alcohol?
  2. How does advertising influence young people to drink alcohol?
  3. What recommendations can be offered by the respondents to minimize alcoholism among young people?
  4. Is there a significant difference in age and commonly seen advertisement on alcohol?

Mixed methods research were the approach used for the progression of the proposed study entitled “The Effects of Advertising Alcohol on Young People”.

The respondents of the study were students from Virgen Delas Flores high school located in Baliuag, Bulacan.

The instruments used in the study were questionnaire and supported by unstructured interview. This was conducted last March 3, 2016.

Convenience Sampling was used as the researchers’ primary tool and a statistical scheme of drawing descriptive data by choosing people because of the comfort of their agreeing or selecting units for the motive of their obtainability or easy access.

i. After systematic research and studies, the researcher derived with the following findings:

Television is the most dominant form of advertisement chosen by the respondents. The form of advertisement on alcohol that can influence young people due to its easy access.

ii. Young people are influenced by alcohol advertisements to drink.

An advertisement turns out to be a source of influencing young people to drink. The findings recorded an over-all mean of 3.79 percent for TV advertising if the alcoholic drink endorser is being idolized by youth according to the respondents.

iii. Solutions recommended by the respondents.

The respondents find the highest recommendation in the total ban of alcoholic advertisement on films. It has collected a total of 3.50 average mean as the vastly recommended key in order to minimize alcoholism amongst the youth.

iv. The significant difference in age and commonly seen advertisement on alcohol.

As manifested in statistical computation of F-statistics, it shows that there is a significant difference in age (12 – 16) and commonly seen alcoholic advertisements which reveals the influence to young people to become sensible to consume alcoholic drinks.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the survey, analysis and evaluation harnessed with advertising and its impact on the consumption of alcohol to young people, the proponent reached the following conclusions:

  1. Television advertisements availability and accessibility at home are contemporary.
  2. There is awareness in young people when it comes to alcoholism.
  3. The reassurance of alcoholic advertisement on films encompasses impact leading to consumption of alcoholic drinks among the young people.
  4. The commonly seen advertisements have an influence to become prudent to consume alcoholic drinks.

Recommendation

The respondents would like to recommend the total ban of alcohol on films for it will not give an optimistic output to youth.

The researcher recommends and much concerned by way of tough law implementation about restrictions in alcohol procurement, so that to minimize alcoholism amongst the youth.

The researcher also recommends the use of this study as a guide for future researcher’s similar study of the subject matter.