Key Words

Values, Moral Education, Integration


Values and moral integration are required of the Commission on Higher Education and HEIS to be part of the syllabi and lessons of the faculty members. Value focus is a part of the syllabi among faculty members of West Visayas State University- Calinog Campus. This research is a deeper look into how these are practised by them.

However, values are generally considered an integral part of our lives (Curriculum Corporation 1994). Singsuriya; Aungsumalin and Worapong (2014) explain the education on moral is given an important role not only in human development but also in citizenship building and solution of socio-political problems. Furthermore, education on moral which approach is a mixture of religious education and character development is partly spelt out in terms of moral reasoning.

Davis; Ruhe; Lee; and Rajadhyaksha (2010) examined how the climate of learning of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business students. Female business students from 11 single-sex colleges (secular and religious) perceived more reinforcement in 13 of 21 character traits than female (and male) students in 3 coeducational institutions. Several of these character traits are related to ethical behavior, such as honesty, compassion, and independence, and are sorely needed in the workplace. Ethics education may enable women to play a larger role in avoiding future ethical crises.

Gruber Schlegelmilch (2013) explain the constructs of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics of the institutions (private, public, and/or religious affiliation), and the composition of the student body. Furthermore, the way ethics is taught around the world has been influenced by recommendations of accreditation agencies and professional bodies.

Gray (2008) explored experiences of four leaders’ with the ethical dimensions of leadership in education, the nature of moral leadership as it is lived in education, and the four major leaders’ experiences such as: their integrity, their justice,their wrestling with decisions in the light of consequences, and the power of information. Finally, the values that direct these leaders’ actions as they mediate community need common to educational institutions.

Teymoori; Heydari Nasiri (2014) proved on the relationship between religiosity, authoritarianism, and moral authority by considering religiosity as a multidimensional construct and morality from its sources of influence. The beliefs on religiousness, feelings and consequences are related to external sources but only religious beliefs and feelings correlate with the principal source of moral authority. Furthermore, religious consequences and authoritarianism, and that their combination significantly predicts the external source of moral authority and authoritarian tendency of religious people and their reliance on external sources of moral reasoning are mostly about the religious consequences dimension.

Singhapakdi; Vitell and Franke (1999) discusses the two aspects of personal moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and perceived moral intensity (PMI)and the consequences of gender, religiosity, education, experience, salary, and corporate ethical values on idealism and relativism. However, idealism increases and relativism decreases PMI in four ethical scenarios. PMI increases perceptions of ethical problems, which reduce intentions to act unethically. Finally, the intentions are also influenced by gender: women have more ethical intentions than men. An essential first step in teaching values, therefore, might be to realise that the educator is, in him or herself, a most influential and potent part of any type of values education (Lovat 2005; Weissbourd 2003; Steiner 1974).

The researchers believes that values of students has influence on the moral integration in teaching learning activities among college teachers of the school of education at West Visayas State University- Calinog Campus.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the value and moral education integration among tertiary members of the School of Education at West Visayas State University for the school year 2013-2014.

Specifically, this study investigated on the following questions:

i. What is the level teachers’ values integration in the teaching and learning activities?

ii. What is the level of teachers’ role in moral education integration in the teaching and learning activities?

iii. Are there significant relationships between the values and moral education integration in teaching learning activities among the respondents?

Materials and Methods

This investigation aimed to determine values and moral education integration in teaching learning activities among faculty members of the school of education at West Visayas State University. This study was conducted on December 2013 among the college members of the School of Education at West Visayas State University. The respondents of the study were the 25 randomly selected professors of the School of Education at West Visayas State University- Calinog Campus. Data were gathered through the use of researcher made questionnaire duly validated by the experts with the Cronbach Alpha of 0.85 signifying a high reliability of the questionnaire. Means and standard deviations were employed as descriptive statistics; while the Pearson’s r, correlation was employed as inferential statistics. Significance level was set at .05 alpha.

Results and Discussion

The values integration as role of faculty members of School of Education at Wet Visayas State University is highly integrated. Values were integrated in the following aspect of the teaching learning process firstly in making conclusion (M=4.65), secondly in making assignment (M=4.64); in the presentation of the lesson (M=4.60); and the least four, art of the questioning (M=4.21); activities in the classroom (M=4.21); followed by correcting students (M=3.84), and lastly, strategies and methods (M=3.76). Table 1 displays this.

In line with the result of the study, it simply showed that it supports the idea that instructors must appeal not only to the mind but the hearts as well, in fact, the total human person. One learns values the way children learn many things from their parents. Children identify with parents, and this identification becomes the vehicle for the transmission of learning, be it language or the values of thrift and hard work (Martre and Martre 2005). Hence, the teacher’s personal values play a vital part in values learning

Table 1

The Teachers’ Roles in the Integration of Values in Teaching Learning Activities

Value Integration in Teaching Learning Activities M Description SD Rank
Making Conclusions 4.65 Highly Integrated 0.568
Making Assignments 4.64 Highly Integrated 0.569
Presentation of Lesson 4.6 Highly Integrated 0.577
Motivation 4.56 Highly Integrated 0.65 4
Affirmation of the Students 4.28 Highly Integrated 0.891 5
Discussion of the Lesson 4.24 Highly Integrated 1.011 6
Art of the Questioning 4.21 Highly Integrated 1.021 7.5
Activities in the Classroom 4.21 Highly Integrated 0.879 7.5
Correcting Students 3.84 Integrated 1.143 9
Strategies and Methods 3.76 Integrated 1.128 10

Mean Scores Interpretation
4.21 – 5.00 Highly Integrated
3.41 – 4.20 Integrated
2.61 – 3.40 Moderately Integrated
1.81 – 2.60 Barely Integrated
1.00 – 1.80 Not Integrated

The moral integration in teaching-learning process is highly integrated. Moral education integrated in the teaching-learning process most importantly in the following aspects: firstly in making conclusions (M=4.53); second motivation (M=4.52); then in presentation of lesson (M=4.40) and making assignment (M=4.40) and the least three are affirmation of the students (M=3.76); followed by strategies and methods (M=3. 64); and lastly, correcting students (M=3. 12). These mean that in almost all parts of the lesson values are highly integrated by the teachers. Value focus is highly integrated.

The result concretize the observation of collective conclusion of researchers that moral courage commands that one is both able and willing to be firm in public for one’s own principles. Moral courage expects daring to state and ‘fight’ for one’s own principles. For teachers this means that one is willing and able to intervene in certain situations, not to stand idly by when one presents itself, for example when the well-being of a particular student is in question (Klaassen & Maslovaty, 2010). For a teacher moral courage means that one consciously and deliberately stands up for one’s own principles. One is not afraid to cultivate moral values and standards; one is not ashamed to bring up such questions. One is also prepared to acknowledge one’s own mistakes in this area. For a teacher moral courage also means that one takes action when one’s own moral principles are under attack from people. It means, too, that when one is addressed in such questions one states one’s own values and standards.

Table 2

The Teachers’ Roles in the Integration of Moral Education in Teaching Learning Activities

Moral Integration in Teaching Learning Activities M Description SD RANK
Making Conclusions 4.53 Highly Integrated 0.77
Motivation 4.52 Highly Integrated 0.77 2
Presentation of Lesson 4.4 Highly Integrated 0.707 3.5
Making Assignments 4.4 Highly Integrated 0.766 3.5
Activities in the Classroom 4.12 Integrated 0.971 5
Discussion of the Lesson 4.04 Integrated 1.059 6
Art of Questioning 3.96 Integrated 1.059 7
Affirmation of the Students 3.76 Integrated 0.522 8
Strategies and Methods 3.64 Integrated 1.15 9
Correcting Students 3.12 Moderately Integrated 0.781 10

Mean Scores Interpretation
4.21 – 5.00 Highly Integrated
3.41 – 4.20 Integrated
2.61 – 3.40 Moderately Integrated
1.81 – 2.60 Barely Integrated
1.00 – 1.80 Not Integrated

Data in Table 3 reveal that positive and significant relationships existed between the value integration and moral integration and they are significantly related. This implies that the values integration has a bearing or can influence moral education integration.

In parallel with the relationship showed in the result of the study, as what Wheatley (1992) said that the integration, wholeness and a sense of harmony within. This means that the values they profess in the cognitive level will be filtered down to the affective as well as the behavioural, thereby making them authentic persons who are true to themselves and becoming fully human. This also involves an effort at finding some form of consistency between what one personally upholds as values with the values that one’s external realities promote, i.e. cultural norms, society’s expectations, roles undertaken, and others. The whole learning experience involved in the valuing process will inevitably heighten the learner’s self-awareness, which eventually also leads to an increase in self-identity and self-direction. Consequently, one becomes more fully empowered to take on the role and responsibility of influencing the immediate community around and the promotion of human dignity in all aspects of life. Learning to Be The valuing process therefore, necessitates experiential learning. The educator simply provides the learning opportunity and atmosphere from which genuine exploration, expression and discovery may freely occur. In the end, learners act on the values that they consciously choose and own. The educator, together with other possible resources in the community, serves both as an enrichment and a guide to the learner’s own discernment experience.

Table 3

The relationship between the Values and Moral Education Integration in Teaching Learning Activities among Faculty Members of the School of Education

Correlated Variables N=25 Value Integration Moral Integration
Value Integration Pearson Correlation 1 .861(**)
Significance(2-tailed) . 0
Moral Integration Pearson Correlation .861(**) 1
Significance(2-tailed) 0 .

** Correlation at 0.01(2-tailed):…

Conclusion and Recommendation

The faculty members were seen by students as integrating values in their teaching learning activities; the faculty member are seen by students as integrating morals in their teaching and learning activities; and value and moral integration are correlated and interrelated. It is recommended that value integration and moral integration are more enhanced. They can be simultaneously integrated in teaching and learning activities, and further studies as regards the topics are encouraged.